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Facilitating successful smart campus transitions: a systems thinking-SWOT analysis approach.

Awuzie, Bankole; Ngowi, Alfred Beati; Omotayo, Temitope; Obi, Lovelin; Akotia, Julius


Bankole Awuzie

Alfred Beati Ngowi

Temitope Omotayo

Lovelin Obi

Julius Akotia


An identification of strengths, weakness, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) factors remains imperative for enabling a successful Smart Campus transition. The absence of a structured approach for analyzing the relationships between these SWOT factors and the influence thereof on Smart Campus transitions negate effective implementation. This study leverages a systems thinking approach to bridge this gap. Data were collected through a stakeholder workshop within a University of Technology case study and analyzed using qualitative content analysis (QCA). This resulted in the establishment of SWOT factors affecting Smart Campus transitions. Systems thinking was utilized to analyze the relationships between these SWOT factors resulting in a causal loop diagram (CLD) highlighting extant interrelationships. A panel of experts drawn from the United Kingdom, New Zealand, and South Africa validated the relationships between the SWOT factors as elucidated in the CLD. Subsequently, a Smart Campus transition framework predicated on the CLD archetypes was developed. The framework provided a holistic approach to understanding the interrelationships between various SWOT factors influencing Smart Campus transitions. This framework remains a valuable tool for facilitating optimal strategic planning and management approaches by policy makers, academics, and implementers within the global Higher Education Institution (HEI) landscape for managing successful Smart Campus transition at the South African University of Technology (SAUoT) and beyond.


AWUZIE, B., NGOWI, A.B., OMOTAYO, T., OBI, L. and AKOTIA, J. 2021. Facilitating successful smart campus transitions: a systems thinking-SWOT analysis approach. Applied sciences [online], 11(5), article 2044. Available from:

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Feb 23, 2021
Online Publication Date Feb 25, 2021
Publication Date Mar 1, 2021
Deposit Date Jan 11, 2022
Publicly Available Date Jan 11, 2022
Journal Applied Sciences
Electronic ISSN 2076-3417
Publisher MDPI
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 11
Issue 5
Article Number 2044
Keywords Causal loop diagram; Smart campus; Systems thinking; Universities
Public URL


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