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Cohesion, exclusion and social quality.

Spicker, Paul


Paul Spicker


The concept of social quality has been operationalized in terms of four component dimensions: social inclustion, social cohesion, socio-economic security and social empowerment. This article argues that inclusion and cohesion are aspects of the same underlying social construct. Societies are cohesive to the extent that they are bound by relationships of solidarity; people are included when they are part of solidaristic social networks. Where there is cohesion, there is solidarity, and where there is solidarity, there is inclusion. It follows that the attempt to define social quality in terms of a formal distiction between inclusion and cohesion is doomed to failure. They cannot be treated as distict elements, and the attempt to distinguish them has led to double-counting.


SPICKER, P. 2014. Cohesion, exclusion and social quality. International journal of social quality [online], 4(1), pages 95-107. Available from:

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Jun 1, 2014
Online Publication Date Jun 1, 2014
Publication Date Jun 1, 2014
Deposit Date Sep 15, 2016
Publicly Available Date Sep 15, 2016
Journal International journal of social quality
Print ISSN 1757-0344
Electronic ISSN 1757-0352
Publisher Berghahn Journals
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 4
Issue 1
Pages 95-107
Keywords Exclusion; Inclusion; Indicators; Social cohesion; Social quality; Solidarity
Public URL


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