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A user-centred evaluation of DisCERN: discovering counterfactuals for code vulnerability detection and correction. (2023)
Journal Article
WIJEKOON, A. and WIRATUNGA, N. 2023. A user-centred evaluation of DisCERN: discovering counterfactuals for code vulnerability detection and correction. Knowledge-based systems [online], 278, article 110830. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.knosys.2023.110830

Counterfactual explanations highlight actionable knowledge which helps to understand how a machine learning model outcome could be altered to a more favourable outcome. Understanding actionable corrections in source code analysis can be critical to p... Read More about A user-centred evaluation of DisCERN: discovering counterfactuals for code vulnerability detection and correction..

The current and future role of visual question answering in eXplainable artificial intelligence. (2023)
Conference Proceeding
CARO-MARTINEZ, M., WIJEKOON, A., DIAZ-AGUDO, B. and RECIO-GARCIA, J.A. 2023. The current and future role of visual question answering in eXplainable artificial intelligence. In Malburg, L. and Verma, D. (eds.) ICCBR-WS 2023: proceedings of the workshops at the 31st International conference on case-based reasoning workshop (ICCBR-WS 2023), co-located with the 31st International conference on case-based reasoning (ICCBR 2023), 17 July 2023, Aberdeen, UK. Aachen: CEUR workshop proceedings [online], pages 172-183. Available from: https://ceur-ws.org/Vol-3438/paper_13.pdf

Over the last few years, we have seen how the interest of the computer science research community on eXplainable Artificial Intelligence has grown in leaps and bounds. The reason behind this rise is the use of Artificial Intelligence in many daily li... Read More about The current and future role of visual question answering in eXplainable artificial intelligence..

AGREE: a feature attribution aggregation framework to address explainer disagreements with alignment metrics. (2023)
Conference Proceeding
PIRIE, C., WIRATUNGA, N., WIJEKOON, A. and MORENO-GARCIA, C.F. 2023. AGREE: a feature attribution aggregation framework to address explainer disagreements with alignment metrics. In Malburg, L. and Verma, D. (eds.) ICCBR-WS 2023: proceedings of the workshops at the 31st International conference on case-based reasoning workshop (ICCBR-WS 2023), co-located with the 31st International conference on case-based reasoning (ICCBR 2023), 17 July 2023, Aberdeen, UK. Aachen: CEUR workshop proceedings [online], pages 184-199. Available from: https://ceur-ws.org/Vol-3438/paper_14.pdf

As deep learning models become increasingly complex, practitioners are relying more on post hoc explanation methods to understand the decisions of black-box learners. However, there is growing concern about the reliability of feature attribution expl... Read More about AGREE: a feature attribution aggregation framework to address explainer disagreements with alignment metrics..

Failure-driven transformational case reuse of explanation strategies in CloodCBR. (2023)
Presentation / Conference
NKISI-ORJI, I., PALIHAWADANA, C., WIRATUNGA, N., WIJEKOON, A. and CORSAR, D. 2023. Failure-driven transformational case reuse of explanation strategies in CloodCBR. In Proceedings of the 31st International conference on case-based reasoning 2023 (ICCBR-2023): CBR in a data-driven world, 17-20 July 2023, Aberdeen, UK. Aberdeen: ICCBR [online], paper 69. Available from: https://delegate.iccbr2023.org/res/paper_69.pdf

In this paper, we propose a novel approach to improve problem-solving efficiency through the reuse of case solutions. Specifically, we introduce the concept of failure-driven transformational case reuse of explanation strategies, which involves trans... Read More about Failure-driven transformational case reuse of explanation strategies in CloodCBR..

CBR driven interactive explainable AI. (2023)
Presentation / Conference
WIJEKOON, A., WIRATUNGA, N., MARTIN, K., CORSAR, D., NKISI-ORJI, I., PALIHAWADANA, C., BRIDGE, D., PRADEEP, P., AGUDO, B.D. and CARO-MARTÍNEZ, M. [2023]. CBR driven interactive explainable AI. In Proceedings of the 31st International conference on case-based reasoning 2023 (ICCBR 2023): CBR in a data-driven world, 17-20 July 2023, Aberdeen, UK. Aberdeen: ICCBR [online], paper 70. Available from: https://delegate.iccbr2023.org/res/paper_70.pdf

Explainable AI (XAI) can greatly enhance user trust and satisfaction in AI-assisted decision-making processes. Numerous explanation techniques (explainers) exist in the literature, and recent findings suggest that addressing multiple user needs requi... Read More about CBR driven interactive explainable AI..

Towards feasible counterfactual explanations: a taxonomy guided template-based NLG method. (2023)
Conference Proceeding
SALIMI, P., WIRATUNGA, N., CORSAR, D. and WIJEKOON, A. 2023. Towards feasible counterfactual explanations: a taxonomy guided template-based NLG method. To be presented at the 26th European conference on artificial intelligence 2023 (ECAI-2023), 30 September - 5 October 2023, Kraków, Poland.

Counterfactual Explanations (cf-XAI) describe the smallest changes in feature values necessary to change an outcome from one class to another. However, presently many cf-XAI methods neglect the feasibility of those changes. In this paper, we introduc... Read More about Towards feasible counterfactual explanations: a taxonomy guided template-based NLG method..

Machine learning for risk stratification of diabetic foot ulcers using biomarkers. (2023)
Conference Proceeding
MARTIN, K., UPHADYAY, A., WIJEKOON, A., WIRATUNGA, N. and MASSIE, S. [2023]. Machine learning for risk stratification of diabetic foot ulcers using biomarkers. To be presented at the 2023 International conference on computational science (ICCS 2023): computing at the cutting edge of science, 3-5 July 2023, Prague, Czech Republic: [virtual event].

Development of a Diabetic Foot Ulcer (DFU) causes a sharp decline in a patient's health and quality of life. The process of risk stratification is crucial for informing the care that a patient should receive to help manage their Diabetes before an ul... Read More about Machine learning for risk stratification of diabetic foot ulcers using biomarkers..

Exploring the potential of technology to promote exercise snacking for older adults who are prefrail in the home setting: user-centered design study. (2023)
Journal Article
STAWARZ, K., LIANG, I.J., ALEXANDER, L., CARLIN, A., WIJEKOON, A. and WESTERN, M. 2023. Exploring the potential of technology to promote exercise snacking for older adults who are prefrail in the home setting: user-centered design study. JMIR aging [online], 6, article e41810. Available from: https://doi.org/10.2196/41810

Older adults have an increased risk of falls, injury, and hospitalization. Maintaining/increasing participation in physical activity (PA) into older age can prevent some of the age-related declines in physical functioning that may contribute to loss... Read More about Exploring the potential of technology to promote exercise snacking for older adults who are prefrail in the home setting: user-centered design study..

Introducing Clood CBR: a cloud based CBR framework. (2023)
Conference Proceeding
PALIHAWADANA, C., NKISI-ORJI, I., WIRATUNGA, N., CORSAR, D. and WIJEKOON, A. 2022. Introducing Clood CBR: a cloud based CBR framework. In Reuss, P. and Schönborn, J. (eds.) ICCBR-WS 2022: proceedings of the 30th International conference on Case-based reasoning workshops 2022 (ICCBR-WS 2022) co-located with the 30th International conference on Case-based reasoning 2022 (ICCBR 2022), 12-15 September 2022, Nancy, France. Aachen: CEUR workshop proceedings [online], 3389, pages 233-234. Available from: https://ceur-ws.org/Vol-3389/ICCBR_2022_Workshop_paper_108.pdf

CBR applications have been deployed in a wide range of sectors, from pharmaceuticals; to defence and aerospace to IoT and transportation, to poetry and music generation; for example. However, a majority of applications have been built using monolithi... Read More about Introducing Clood CBR: a cloud based CBR framework..

iSee: intelligent sharing of explanation experiences. (2023)
Conference Proceeding
MARTIN, K., WIJEKOON, A., WIRATUNGA, N., PALIHAWADANA, C., NKISI-ORJIC, I., CORSAR, D., DÍAZ-AGUDO, B., RECIO-GARCÍA, J.A., CARO-MARTÍNEZ, M., BRIDGE, D., PRADEEP, P., LIRET, A. and FLEISCH, B. 2022. iSee: intelligent sharing of explanation experiences. In Reuss, P. and Schönborn, J. (eds.) ICCBR-WS 2022: proceedings of the 30th International conference on Case-based reasoning workshops 2022 (ICCBR-WS 2022) co-located with the 30th International conference on Case-based reasoning 2022 (ICCBR 2022), 12-15 September 2022, Nancy, France. Aachen: CEUR workshop proceedings [online], 3389, pages 231-232. Available from: https://ceur-ws.org/Vol-3389/ICCBR_2022_Workshop_paper_83.pdf

The right to an explanation of the decision reached by a machine learning (ML) model is now an EU regulation. However, different system stakeholders may have different background knowledge, competencies and goals, thus requiring different kinds of ex... Read More about iSee: intelligent sharing of explanation experiences..

Conceptual modelling of explanation experiences through the iSeeonto ontology. (2023)
Conference Proceeding
CARO-MARTÍNEZ, M., WIJEKOON, A., RECIO-GARCÍA, J.A., CORSAR, D. and NKISI-ORJI, I. 2022. Conceptual modelling of explanation experiences through the iSeeonto ontology. In Reuss, P. and Schönborn, J. (eds.) ICCBR-WS 2022: proceedings of the 30th International conference on Case-based reasoning workshops 2022 (ICCBR-WS 2022) co-located with the 30th International conference on Case-based reasoning 2022 (ICCBR 2022), 12-15 September 2022, Nancy, France. Aachen: CEUR workshop proceedings [online], 3389, pages 117-128. Available from: https://ceur-ws.org/Vol-3389/ICCBR_2022_Workshop_paper_86.pdf

Explainable Artificial Intelligence is a big research field required in many situations where we need to understand Artificial Intelligence behaviour. However, each explanation need is unique which makes it difficult to apply explanation techniques a... Read More about Conceptual modelling of explanation experiences through the iSeeonto ontology..

iSee: demonstration video. [video recording] (2023)
Digital Artefact
WIJEKOON, A., WIRATUNGA, N., PALIHAWADANA, C., NKISI-ORJI, I., CORSAR, D. and MARTIN, K. 2023. iSee: demonstration video. [video recording]. New York: ACM [online]. Available from: https://dl.acm.org/doi/10.1145/3581754.3584137#sec-supp

This output presents a demonstration of the iSee platform. iSee is an ongoing project aimed at improving the user experience of AI by harnessing experiences and best practices in Explainable AI. To this end, iSee brings together research and developm... Read More about iSee: demonstration video. [video recording].

iSee: intelligent sharing of explanation experience of users for users. (2023)
Conference Proceeding
WIJEKOON, A., WIRATUNGA, N., PALIHAWADANA, C., NKISI-ORJI, I., CORSAR, D. and MARTIN, K. 2023. iSee: intelligent sharing of explanation experience of users for users. In IUI '23 companion: companion proceedings of the 28th Intelligent user interfaces international conference 2023 (IUI 2023), 27-31 March 2023, Sydney, Australia. New York: ACM [online], pages 79-82. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1145/3581754.3584137

The right to obtain an explanation of the decision reached by an Artificial Intelligence (AI) model is now an EU regulation. Different stakeholders of an AI system (e.g. managers, developers, auditors, etc.) may have different background knowledge, c... Read More about iSee: intelligent sharing of explanation experience of users for users..

Clinical dialogue transcription error correction using Seq2Seq models. (2022)
Conference Proceeding
NANAYAKKARA, G., WIRATURNGA, N., CORSAR, D., MARTIN, K. and WIJEKOON, A. 2022. Clinical dialogue transcription error correction using Seq2Seq models. In Shaban-Nejad, A., Michalowski, M. and Bianco, S. (eds.) Multimodal AI in healthcare: a paradigm shift in health intelligence; selected papers from the 6th International workshop on health intelligence (W3PHIAI-22), co-located with the 34th AAAI (Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence) Innovative applications of artificial intelligence (IAAI-22), 28 February - 1 March 2022, [virtual event]. Studies in computational intelligence, 1060. Cham: Springer [online], pages 41-57. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-14771-5_4

Good communication is critical to good healthcare. Clinical dialogue is a conversation between health practitioners and their patients, with the explicit goal of obtaining and sharing medical information. This information contributes to medical decis... Read More about Clinical dialogue transcription error correction using Seq2Seq models..

Adapting semantic similarity methods for case-based reasoning in the Cloud. (2022)
Conference Proceeding
NKISI-ORJI, I., PALIHAWADANA, C., WIRATUNGA, N., CORSAR, D. and WIJEKOON, A. 2022. Adapting semantic similarity methods for case-based reasoning in the Cloud. In Keane, M.T. and Wiratunga, N. (eds.) Case-based reasoning research and development: proceedings of the 30th International conference on case-based reasoning (ICCBR 2022), 12-15 September 2022, Nancy, France. Lecture notes in computer science, 13405. Cham: Springer [online], pages 125-139. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-14923-8_9

CLOOD is a cloud-based CBR framework based on a microservices architecture, which facilitates the design and deployment of case-based reasoning applications of various sizes. This paper presents advances to the similarity module of CLOOD through the... Read More about Adapting semantic similarity methods for case-based reasoning in the Cloud..

How close is too close? Role of feature attributions in discovering counterfactual explanations. (2022)
Conference Proceeding
WIJEKOON, A., WIRATUNGA, N., NKISI-ORJI, I., PALIHAWADANA, C., CORSAR, D. and MARTIN, K. 2022. How close is too close? Role of feature attributions in discovering counterfactual explanations. In Keane, M.T. and Wiratunga, N. (eds.) Case-based reasoning research and development: proceedings of the 30th International conference on case-based reasoning (ICCBR 2022), 12-15 September 2022, Nancy, France. Lecture notes in computer science, 13405. Cham: Springer [online], pages 33-47. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-14923-8_3

Counterfactual explanations describe how an outcome can be changed to a more desirable one. In XAI, counterfactuals are "actionable" explanations that help users to understand how model decisions can be changed by adapting features of an input. A cas... Read More about How close is too close? Role of feature attributions in discovering counterfactual explanations..

Clinical dialogue transcription error correction using Seq2Seq models. (2022)
Working Paper
NANAYAKKARA, G., WIRATUNGA, N., CORSAR, D., MARTIN, K. and WIJEKOON, A. 2022. Clinical dialogue transcription error correction using Seq2Seq models. arXiv [online]. Available from: https://doi.org/10.48550/arXiv.2205.13572

Good communication is critical to good healthcare. Clinical dialogue is a conversation between health practitioners and their patients, with the explicit goal of obtaining and sharing medical information. This information contributes to medical decis... Read More about Clinical dialogue transcription error correction using Seq2Seq models..

DisCERN: discovering counterfactual explanations using relevance features from neighbourhoods. (2021)
Conference Proceeding
WIRATUNGA, N., WIJEKOON, A., NKISI-ORJI, I., MARTIN, K., PALIHAWADANA, C. and CORSAR, D. 2021. DisCERN: discovering counterfactual explanations using relevance features from neighbourhoods. In Proceedings of 33rd IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) International conference on tools with artificial intelligence 2021 (ICTAI 2021), 1-3 November 2021, Washington, USA [virtual conference]. Piscataway: IEEE [online], pages 1466-1473. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1109/ICTAI52525.2021.00233

Counterfactual explanations focus on 'actionable knowledge' to help end-users understand how a machine learning outcome could be changed to a more desirable outcome. For this purpose a counterfactual explainer needs to discover input dependencies tha... Read More about DisCERN: discovering counterfactual explanations using relevance features from neighbourhoods..

Reasoning with counterfactual explanations for code vulnerability detection and correction. (2021)
Conference Proceeding
WIJEKOON, A. and WIRATUNGA, N. 2021. Reasoning with counterfactual explanations for code vulnerability detection and correction. In Sani, S. and Kalutarage, H. (eds.) AI and cybersecurity 2021 (AI-Cybersec 2021): proceedings of the workshop on AI and cybersecurity (AI-Cybersec 2021) co-located with 41st (British Computer Society's Specialist Group on Artificial Intelligence) SGAI international conference on artificial intelligence (SGAI 2021), 14 December 2021, Cambridge, UK: [virtual conference]. Aachen: CEUR Workshop Proceedings [online], 3125, pages 1-13. Available from: http://ceur-ws.org/Vol-3125/paper1.pdf 14 December 2021, Cambridge, UK: [virtual event]. Aachen: CEUR Workshop Proceedings [online], 3125, pages 1-13. Available from: http://ceur-ws.org/Vol-3125/paper1.pdf

Counterfactual explanations highlight "actionable knowledge" which helps the end-users to understand how a machine learning outcome could be changed to a more desirable outcome. In code vulnerability detection, understanding these "actionable" correc... Read More about Reasoning with counterfactual explanations for code vulnerability detection and correction..

FedSim: similarity guided model aggregation for federated learning. (2021)
Journal Article
PALIHAWADANA, C., WIRATUNGA, N., WIJEKOON, A. and KALUTARAGE, H. 2022. FedSim: similarity guided model aggregation for federated learning. Neurocomputing [online], 483: distributed machine learning, optimization and applications, pages 432-445. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neucom.2021.08.141

Federated Learning (FL) is a distributed machine learning approach in which clients contribute to learning a global model in a privacy preserved manner. Effective aggregation of client models is essential to create a generalised global model. To what... Read More about FedSim: similarity guided model aggregation for federated learning..