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Enhanced oil recovery by CO2 injection in carbonate reservoirs.

Hawez, H.; Ahmed, Z.


H. Hawez

Z. Ahmed


H. H. Al-Kayiem

C.A. Brebbia

S.S. Zubir


The majority of carbonate reservoirs have low porosity and permeability in general because of having a high amount of matrixes that make a heterogeneous reservoir, however high permeable layers are fractured. This study shows the effect of carbon dioxide injection on the oil recovery factor using an ECLIPSE 300 compositional reservoir simulator for 3D modelling and the change of carbonate components reaction during CO2 injection in experimental work. In addition, a high recovery factor has been recorded during miscible CO2 injection compared to immiscible injection. Water alternative gas (WAG) has been used as an enhanced oil recovery (EOR) method to overcome an unfavourable mobility ratio of CO2 flooding. Miscible CO2 injection with the aid of WAG has also had a great impact on the dissolution of carbonate components in dissolving calcite and dolomite components. Consequently, CO2 flooding has a relatively low recovery factor without any EOR techniques such as gravity stable displacement, WAG or mobility control. CO2 injection below minimum miscibility pressure (MMP) reduces CO2 emission, while it takes too long time to maintain reservoir pressure. On the other hand, CO2 flooding above MMP improves pressure maintenance; causes oil swelling, and increases the oil density.


HAWEZ, H. and AHMED, Z. 2014. Enhanced oil recovery by CO2 injection in carbonate reservoirs. In Al-Kayiem, H.H., Brebbia, C.A. and Zubir, S.S. (eds.) Energy and sustainability V: proceedings of 5th Energy and sustainability international conference 2014, 16-18 December 2014, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. WIT transactions on ecology and the environment, 186. Southampton: WIT Press [online], 547-558. Available from:

Conference Name 5th Energy and sustainability international conference 2014
Conference Location Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Start Date Dec 16, 2014
End Date Dec 18, 2014
Acceptance Date May 12, 2014
Online Publication Date Dec 18, 2014
Publication Date Dec 18, 2014
Deposit Date Feb 22, 2021
Publicly Available Date Feb 22, 2021
Publisher WIT Press
Pages 547-558
Series Title WIT transactions on ecology and the environment
Series Number 186
Series ISSN 1743-3541
Book Title Energy and sustainability V
ISBN 9781845648374
Keywords Miscibility; MMP; CO2 and WAG injections; Carbonate reactivity
Public URL
Publisher URL


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