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An innovative protocol to select the best growth phase for astaxanthin biosynthesis in H. pluvialis.

Radice, Rosa Paola; Fiorentino, Rocco; De Luca, Maria; Limongi, Antonina Rita; Viviano, Emanuele; Bermano, Giovanna; Martelli, Giuseppe


Rosa Paola Radice

Rocco Fiorentino

Maria De Luca

Antonina Rita Limongi

Emanuele Viviano

Giuseppe Martelli


H. pluvialis is a green unicellular microalgae and it is the first producer of natural astaxanthin in the world if subjected to stress conditions such as high light, high salinity and nutrient starvation. Astaxanthin is a powerful antioxidant used in many fields, such as aquaculture, pharmaceutical, food supplements and cosmetic. To obtain a large amount of astaxanthin, researcher focused on the optimisation of H. pluvialis growth. H. pluvialis has four different size growth stage (macrozooids, microzooids, palmelloid and “red non-motile astaxanthin accumulated encysted”), and astaxanthin production occur in the last phase. Recent studies shown that non-motile cells can produce more astaxanthin than motile cells if subjected to light stress. For these reasons, the aim of this study is to find a new and innovative methodology to select and recovery H. pluvialis in his last growth phase thanks to an electrophoretic run, and optimize, in this way, astaxanthin production.


RADICE, R.P., FIORENTINO, R., DE LUCA, M., LIMONGI, A.R., VIVIANO, E., BERMANO, G. and MARTELLI, G. 2021. An innovative protocol to select the best growth phase for astaxanthin biosynthesis in H. pluvialis. Biotechnology reports [online], 31, article e00655. Available from:

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Jun 17, 2021
Online Publication Date Jun 18, 2021
Publication Date Sep 30, 2021
Deposit Date Jun 25, 2021
Publicly Available Date Jun 25, 2021
Journal Biotechnology Reports
Print ISSN 2215-017X
Electronic ISSN 2215-017X
Publisher Elsevier
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 31
Article Number e00655
Keywords Astaxanthin; Haematococcus pluvialis; Food supplements; Innovative methodology; Microalgae; Growth optimization
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