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Effect of carnosine or β-alanine supplementation on markers of glycemic control and insulin resistance in humans and animals: a systematic review and meta-analysis. [Dataset]

Contributors

Joseph J. Matthews
Data Collector

Eimear Dolan
Data Collector

Lívia Santos
Data Collector

Guilherme G. Artioli
Data Collector

Mark D. Turner
Data Collector

Kirsty J. Elliott-Sale
Data Collector

Craig Sale
Data Collector

Abstract

The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the effect of carnosine or β-alanine supplementation on markers of glycemic control and insulin resistance in humans and animals. A systematic search of 6 electronic databases was performed up to 31 December 2020. Primary outcomes were changes in 1) fasting glucose, 2) glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and 3) 2-h glucose following a glucose-tolerance test. A set of additional outcomes included fasting insulin and homeostatic model assessment of β-cell function (HOMA-β) and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). The authors assessed risk of bias using the Cochrane risk of bias (RoB) 2.0 (human studies) and the Systematic Review Center for Laboratory Animal Experimentation (SYRCLE) RoB (animal studies) tools; and used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach to assess certainty. Bayesian hierarchical random-effects models was used, with informative priors for human data and noninformative priors for animal data. Inferences were made on posterior samples generated by Hamiltonian Markov Chain Monte Carlo using 90% credible intervals (90% CrI) and calculated probabilities. Twenty studies (n = 4 human, n = 16 rodent) were included, providing data for 2 primary outcomes (fasting glucose and HbA1c) and 3 additional outcomes (fasting insulin, HOMA-β, and HOMA-IR). The model provides evidence that supplementation decreases fasting glucose [humans: mean difference (MD)0.5 = –0.95 mmol · L–1 (90% CrI: –2.1, 0.08); rodent: MD0.5 = –2.26 mmol · L–1 (90% CrI: –4.03, –0.44)], HbA1c [humans: MD0.5 = –0.91% (90% CrI: –1.46, –0.39); rodents: MD0.5 = –1.05% (90% CrI: –1.64, –0.52)], HOMA-IR [humans: standardized mean difference (SMD)0.5 = –0.41 (90% CrI: –0.82, –0.07); rodents: SMD0.5 = –0.63 (90% CrI: –1.98, 0.65)], and fasting insulin [humans: SMD0.5 = –0.41 (90% CrI: –0.77, –0.07)]. GRADE assessment showed our certainty in the effect estimate of each outcome to be moderate (human outcomes) or very low (rodent outcomes). Supplementation with carnosine or β-alanine may reduce fasting glucose, HbA1c, and HOMA-IR in humans and rodents, and fasting insulin in humans; both compounds show potential as therapeutics to improve glycemic control and insulin resistance.

Citation

MATTHEWS, J.J., DOLAN, E., SWINTON, P.A., SANTOS, L., ARTIOLI, G.G., TURNER, M.D., ELLIOTT-SALE, K.J. and SALE, C. [2021]. Effect of carnosine or β-alanine supplementation on markers of glycemic control and insulin resistance in humans and animals: a systematic review and meta-analysis. [Dataset]. Advances in nutrition [online], Advanced Articles. Available from: https://academic.oup.com/advances/advance-article/doi/10.1093/advances/nmab087/6333366#supplementary-data

Acceptance Date Jun 17, 2021
Online Publication Date Jul 31, 2021
Deposit Date Aug 12, 2021
Publicly Available Date Aug 12, 2021
Publisher Oxford University Press
DOI https://doi.org/10.1093/advances/nmab087
Keywords Endocrinology; Histidine; Metabolic health; Metabolism; Nutrition; Obesity
Public URL https://rgu-repository.worktribe.com/output/1406147
Publisher URL https://academic.oup.com/advances/advance-article/doi/10.1093/advances/nmab087/6333366#supplementary-data
Related Public URLs https://rgu-repository.worktribe.com/output/1351910
https://rgu-repository.worktribe.com/output/999672
Type of Data 2 PDF files, 2 XLSX files and accompanying TXT file.
Collection Date Dec 31, 2020
Collection Method The methods for this study were published in full as a protocol paper (https://doi.org/10.1186/s13643-020-01539-8) and preregistered on PROSPERO (CRD42020191588). The authors followed the updated 2020 Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines.