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Self-efficacy is a modifiable factor associated with frailty in those with minor stroke: secondary analysis of 200 cohort respondents.

Aminu, Abodunrin Quadri; Wondergem, Roderick; Van Zaalen, Yvonne; Pisters, Martijn


Abodunrin Quadri Aminu

Roderick Wondergem

Yvonne Van Zaalen

Martijn Pisters


Background: Owing to the improvement in acute care, there has been an increase in the number of people surviving stroke and living with its impairments. Frailty is common in people with stroke and has a significant impact on the prognosis after stroke. To reduce frailty progression, potentially modifiable factors should be identified. Increasing levels of self-efficacy influence both behaviour and physical functioning, and therefore it could be a potential target to prevent frailty. Methods: This is a prospective cohort study that involved the secondary analysis of the RISE data to examine the relationship between self-efficacy and frailty. The RISE study is a longitudinal study that consists of 200 adults aged 18+ years after their first stroke event. Data were collected from the respondents at 3 weeks, 6 months, 12 months, and 24 months after their discharge from the hospital. Frailty was assessed using the multidimensional frailty index with scores ranging from 0 to 1, and self-efficacy was assessed using the SESx scale, which was dichotomized as low/moderate or high. Frailty trajectories were examined using the repeated linear model. The generalized estimating equation was used to examine the relationship between self-efficacy and frailty at baseline and in the future (6-24 months). The B coefficients were reported at 95% CI before and after adjusting for potential confounders (age, gender, stroke severity, education, and social support). Results: A total of 200 responses were analysed, and the mean age of the respondents was 67.78 ± 11.53. Females made up 64% of the sample, and the mean frailty score at baseline was 0.17 ± 0.09. After adjusting for confounders, respondents with low self-efficacy had an approximately 5% increase in their frailty scores at baseline and in the 24-month follow-up period compared to those with high self-efficacy. Conclusion: The result from this study showed that self-efficacy was significantly associated with frailty after stroke. Our findings suggest that self-efficacy may play a role in frailty progression among stroke survivors.


AMINU, A.Q., WONDERGEM, R., VAN ZAALEN, Y. and PISTERS, M. 2021. Self-efficacy is a modifiable factor associated with frailty in those with minor stroke: secondary analysis of 200 cohort respondents. Cerebrovascular diseases extra [online], 11(3), pages 99-105. Available from:

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Aug 23, 2021
Online Publication Date Oct 8, 2021
Publication Date Dec 31, 2021
Deposit Date Nov 1, 2021
Publicly Available Date Nov 1, 2021
Journal Cerebrovascular Diseases Extra
Electronic ISSN 1664-5456
Publisher Karger Publishers
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 11
Issue 3
Pages 99-105
Keywords Self-efficacy; Frailty; Stroke management; Healthcare
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AMINU 2021 Self-efficacy is a modifiable (348 Kb)

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Copyright Statement
© 2021 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel. This is an Open Access article licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-4.0 International License (CC BY-NC) (, applicable to the online version of the article only. Usage and distribution for commercial purposes requires written permission.

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