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Investigation into the effect of wind power based embedded generators on distribution networks.

Rida, Ibrahim Moh'd Ali


Ibrahim Moh'd Ali Rida


S.K. Salman

J. Watson


Wind turbine-generators are usually integrated into utilities' electrical networks at distribution voltage levels, and they are commonly known as "Embedded Generators" (EGs). Recently, it has been reported that the integration of wind power-based embedded generators (WPBEGs) into distribution networks could cause maloperation of automatic voltage control (AVC) relays. Further investigation is therefore required to improve the performance of AVC relays in the presence of EGs. On the other hand, the dynamic effects of WPBEGs on distribution networks (DNs) have been investigated for many years, but no attempt has been made to evaluate the effects of WPBEGs on the "Critical Clearing Time" (CCT) of faults on load feeders emanating from the substation where EGs are connected to the network. Based on these findings, the work conducted and reported in this thesis covers two main aspects. The first aspect is related to the effect of EGs on the operation of AVC relays, including the compensation of voltage drop along distribution feeders. This is preceded by an introduction to the operating principles of conventional AVC relays. A new model of an AVC relay based on the application of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) is then presented. The model is designed and trained to calculate the AVC voltage that is used to initiate the operation of the tap-changer of an appropriate transformer as conditions necessitate. In the process of the development of an ANN-based relay, a power flow program has been specially designed to generate training files using FORTRAN. The second aspect reported in this thesis deals with the investigation of the effect of WPBEGs on the CCT of faults on load feeders. It has been concluded that CCT of faults, which is required to maintain the stability of WPBEGs, can be several times less than that of the operating time of conventional protection schemes usually used on distribution feeders. The results obtained from the investigation related to both aspects are presented and discussed. In summary, this thesis reports on the outcome of the investigation related to the design of an ANN based AVC relay capable of accommodating EGs and the effect of the dynamic behaviour of EGs on the CCT of faults on load feeders.


RIDA, I.M.A. 2000. Investigation into the effect of wind power based embedded generators on distribution networks. Robert Gordon University, PhD thesis. Hosted on OpenAIR [online]. Available from:

Thesis Type Thesis
Deposit Date Jun 23, 2022
Publicly Available Date Jun 23, 2022
Keywords Wind power; Wind turbines; Power distribution networks; Electricity distribution networks
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