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From Canada to Scotland: the incorporation of ethical wildlife control principles: a review.

Moneagle, Hannah Louise


Hannah Louise Moneagle


In 2015, 20 experts from academia, industry, and non-governmental organisations on 5 continents agreed to a set of seven international principles for ethical decision making ("the principles") in managing human–wildlife conflict. The principles have since been recognised in wildlife management policy and standards in parts of British Columbia, Canada. In 2022, the principles were introduced to the Scottish Parliament by means of a formal Motion lodged by Colin Smyth MSP. Smyth expressed the view that opportunities existed to integrate the principles into the Scottish Government's strategic approach to wildlife management and its species licensing review. The (now former) Minister for Environment, Biodiversity and Land Reform at the Scottish Government, Mairi McAllan, stated in the Motion debate that followed that she was committed to working to understand how the principles could sit alongside the Scottish Government's ambitious programme to protect animals and wildlife. The Hunting with Dogs (Scotland) Bill was introduced to the Scottish Parliament prior (February 2022) to the Motion debate but passed on 24 January 2023, following various debate and amendment stages. It offered parliamentarians the first opportunity to align wildlife-specific legislation with the principles. The Bill received Royal Assent on 7 March 2023 and is now the Hunting with Dogs (Scotland) Act 2023 ("The Act"). A review of The Bill (and subsequent Act) can assist in identifying where it could have aligned more closely with the principles to assist decision makers in understanding how to usefully incorporate the principles into future wildlife legislation and policy.


MONEAGLE, H.L. 2023. From Canada to Scotland: the incorporation of ethical wildlife control principles: a review. Laws [online], 12(3), article number 52. Available from:

Journal Article Type Review
Acceptance Date May 25, 2023
Online Publication Date Jun 5, 2023
Publication Date Jun 30, 2023
Deposit Date Jun 5, 2023
Publicly Available Date Jun 5, 2023
Journal Laws
Electronic ISSN 2075-471X
Publisher MDPI
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 12
Issue 3
Article Number 52
Keywords Wildlife law; Wildlife management; Wildlife conservation; Ethics; Scotland
Public URL


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