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Investigation on mechanical and thermal properties of 3D-printed polyamide 6, graphene oxide and glass-fibre-reinforced composites under dry, wet and high temperature conditions.

Ichakpa, Mariah; Goodyear, Matthew; Duthie, Jake; Duthie, Matthew; Wisely, Ryan; MacPherson, Allan; Keyte, John; Pancholi, Ketan; Njuguna, James


Matthew Goodyear

Jake Duthie

Matthew Duthie

Ryan Wisely

Allan MacPherson

John Keyte


This study is focused on 3D printing of polyamide 6 (PA6), PA6/graphene oxide (PA6/GO) and PA6/glass-fibre-reinforced (PA6/GF) composites. The effect of graphene oxide and glass-fibre reinforcement on 3D-printed PA6 is explored for improvement of the interfacial bond and interlaminar strength in ambient, wet and high temperature conditions relating to electric car battery box requirements. The influence of environmental conditions and process parameters on the 3D printed polymer composites quality is also examined. Commercial PA6 filament was modified with GO to investigate the thermal and mechanical properties. The modified composites were melt-compounded using a twin-feed extruder to produce an improved 3D-printing filament. The improved filaments were then used to 3D-print test samples for tensile and compression mechanical testing using universal testing machines and thermal characterisation was performed following condition treatment in high temperature and water for correlation to dry/ambient samples. The study results show the studied materials were mostly suitable in dry/ambient conditions. PA6/GF samples demonstrated the highest strength of all three samples in ambient and high-temperature conditions, but the least strength in wet conditions due to osmotic pressure at the fibre/matrix interface that led to fibre breakage. The introduction of 0.1% GO improved the tensile strength by 33%, 11% and 23% in dry/ambient, dry/high temperature and wet/ambient conditions, respectively. The wet PA6/GO samples demonstrated the least strength in comparison to the ambient and high temperature conditions. Notwithstanding this, PA6/GO exhibited the highest tensile strength in the wet condition, making it the most suitable for a high-strength, water-exposed engineering application.


ICHAKPA, M., GOODYEAR, M., DUTHIE, J., DUTHIE, M., WISELY, R., MACPHERSON, A., KEYTE, J., PANCHOLI, K. and NJUGUNA, J. 2023. Investigation on mechanical and thermal properties of 3d-printed polyamide 6, graphene oxide and glass-fibre-reinforced composites under dry, wet and high temperature conditions. Journal of composites science [online], 7(6), article 227. Available from:

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date May 26, 2023
Online Publication Date Jun 3, 2023
Publication Date Jun 30, 2023
Deposit Date Jun 13, 2023
Publicly Available Date Jun 13, 2023
Journal Journal of composites science
Electronic ISSN 2504-477X
Publisher MDPI
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 7
Issue 6
Article Number 227
Keywords 3D printing; PA6; Polymer composites; GO; Nanocomposite; Material properties; GF
Public URL


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