Skip to main content

Research Repository

Advanced Search

Contribution of aerosol species to the 2019 smoke episodes over the east coast of peninsular Malaysia.

Napi, Nur Nazmi Liyana Mohd; Ooi, Maggie Chel Gee; Latif, Mohd Talib; Juneng, Liew; Nadzir, Mohd Shahrul Mohd; Chan, Andy; Li, Li; Abdullah, Samsuri


Nur Nazmi Liyana Mohd Napi

Maggie Chel Gee Ooi

Mohd Talib Latif

Liew Juneng

Mohd Shahrul Mohd Nadzir

Li Li

Samsuri Abdullah


Large-scale biomass burning (BB) emits large amounts of aerosols that lead to transboundary smoke events and adversely impacts human health, whilst causing societal and environmental issues. High ambient PM2.5 concentration in the year 2019 based on New Malaysia Ambient Air Quality Standard (NMAAQS) was identified as high pollution episodes, HP1 and HP2 on the east coast Peninsular Malaysia (ECPM). Meanwhile, the low PM2.5 concentration episodes are known as LP1 and LP2. The transboundary smoke events in Indochina and Indonesia are linked to HP1 (March–April) and HP2(August–September), respectively from backward trajectory and MERRA-2 model re-analyses weather data. The correlation analysis showed a significantly strong positive correlation (r) of black carbon (HP1: 0.91; HP2: 0.96), organic carbon (HP1: 0.90; HP2: 0.94), and sulphate (HP1: 0.80; HP2: 0.61) with the aerosol optical depth (AOD) levels during high pollution episodes. The synoptic weather condition and inter-monsoon in HP1 and southwest monsoon in HP2 introduce strong wind speed and favourable wind pattern that can initiate the long-range transport of high AOD and PM2.5 to the ECPM region. In conclusion, this study demystified the sources of BB emissions, the transport route of transboundary smoke events, their influence factors during different high pollution periods, and the links between aerosol species from local and non-local emissions with AOD levels and PM2.5 concentrations along the ECPM, which altogether provide crucial information on climate variability signal and can help in developing a corresponding strategy for high pollution episodes.


NAPI, N.N.L.M., OOI, M.C.G., LATIF, M.T., JUNENG, L., NADZIR, M.S.M., CHAN, A., LI, L. and ABDULLAH, S. 2022. Contribution of aerosol species to the 2019 smoke episodes over the east coast of peninsular Malaysia. Aerosol and air quality research [online], 22(7), article 210393. Available from:

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date May 12, 2022
Online Publication Date May 17, 2022
Publication Date Jul 31, 2022
Deposit Date Jun 30, 2023
Publicly Available Date Jul 4, 2023
Journal Aerosol and air quality research
Print ISSN 1680-8584
Electronic ISSN 2071-1409
Publisher Taiwan Association for Aerosol Research
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 22
Issue 7
Article Number 210393
Keywords Biomass burning smoke; Long-range transport; AOD; Aerosol species; East coast peninsular Malaysia
Public URL
Additional Information This article has been published with separate supporting information. This supporting information has been incorporated into a single file on this repository and can be found at the end of the file associated with this output.


NAPI 2022 Contribution of aerosol species (VOR) (11.4 Mb)

Publisher Licence URL

Copyright Statement
© The Author's institutions. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are cited.

You might also like

Downloadable Citations