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Enhancing the catalytic activity of eggshell-derived CaO catalyst and its application in biodiesel production from waste chicken fat.

Saleem, Muhammad; Jamil, Farrukh; Qamar, Obaid Ali; Akhter, Parveen; Hussain, Murid; Khurram, Muhammad Shahzad; Al-Muhtaseb, Ala’a H.; Inayat, Abrar; Shah, Noor Samad

Authors

Muhammad Saleem

Farrukh Jamil

Obaid Ali Qamar

Parveen Akhter

Murid Hussain

Muhammad Shahzad Khurram

Ala’a H. Al-Muhtaseb

Abrar Inayat

Noor Samad Shah



Abstract

The comparatively greater cost of producing biodiesel in comparison to petroleum diesel is one of the key drawbacks. Eggshells and leftover chicken fat are examples of poultry wastes that can be used to produce biodiesel at a low cost as catalysts and oil, respectively. In this study, eggshell-derived CaO and its doping with sodium methoxide catalyst for enhancing catalytic activity was synthesized for the transesterification of waste chicken fat and characterized by FT-IR and XRD analyses. XRD studies confirmed the crystalline structure of the developed catalyst and doping of sodium with eggshell-derived CaO. The transesterification reaction was performed at different reaction parameters such as the catalyst loading, the methanol to oil ratio, the reaction temperature, and the reaction time. The biodiesel produced at the maximum yield was evaluated by gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis. A maximum yield of 96% biodiesel was obtained with catalyst loading of 2 wt% of oil, as well as a methanol to oil ratio of 13:1 at 60 °C in 1 h. The output demonstrates that eggshell waste is a potentially accessible source of biomass-derived nano catalyst for the synthesis of biodiesel using chicken fat as a feedstock.

Citation

SALEEM, M., JAMIL, F., QAMAR, O.A., AKHTER, P., HUSSAIN, M., KHURRAM, M.S., AL-MUHTASEB, A.H., INAYAT, A. and SHAH, N.S. 2022. Enhancing the catalytic activity of eggshell-derived CaO catalyst and its application in biodiesel production from waste chicken fat. Catalysts [online], 12(12), article number 1627. Available from: https://doi.org/10.3390/catal12121627

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Dec 9, 2022
Online Publication Date Dec 12, 2022
Publication Date Dec 31, 2022
Deposit Date Aug 28, 2023
Publicly Available Date Oct 2, 2023
Journal Catalysts
Electronic ISSN 2073-4344
Publisher MDPI
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 12
Issue 12
Article Number 1627
DOI https://doi.org/10.3390/catal12121627
Keywords Eggshells; Catalysts; Biofuel renewable; Sustainable
Public URL https://rgu-repository.worktribe.com/output/2009925

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