Skip to main content

Research Repository

Advanced Search

Heteroatom-mediated interactions between ruthenium single atoms and an MXene support for efficient hydrogen evolution.

Ramalingam, Vinoth; Varadhan, Purushothaman; Fu, Hui Chun; Kim, Hyunho; Zhang, Daliang; Chen, Shuangming; Song, Li; Ma, Ding; Wang, Yun; Alshareef, Husam N.; He, Jr Hau


Purushothaman Varadhan

Hui Chun Fu

Hyunho Kim

Daliang Zhang

Shuangming Chen

Li Song

Ding Ma

Yun Wang

Husam N. Alshareef

Jr Hau He


A titanium carbide (Ti3C2Tx) MXene is employed as an efficient solid support to host a nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) coordinated ruthenium single atom (RuSA) catalyst, which displays superior activity toward the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy and aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy reveal the atomic dispersion of Ru on the Ti3C2Tx MXene support and the successful coordination of RuSA with the N and S species on the Ti3C2Tx MXene. The resultant RuSA-N-S-Ti3C2Tx catalyst exhibits a low overpotential of 76 mV to achieve the current density of 10 mA cm−2. Furthermore, it is shown that integrating the RuSA-N-S-Ti3C2Tx catalyst on n+np+-Si photocathode enables photoelectrochemical hydrogen production with exceptionally high photocurrent density of 37.6 mA cm−2 that is higher than the reported precious Pt and other noble metals catalysts coupled to Si photocathodes. Density functional theory calculations suggest that RuSA coordinated with N and S sites on the Ti3C2Tx MXene support is the origin of this enhanced HER activity. This work would extend the possibility of using the MXene family as a solid support for the rational design of various single atom catalysts.


RAMALINGAM, V., VARADHAN, P., FU, H.-C., KIM, H., ZHANG, D., CHEN, S., SONG, L., MA, D., WANG, Y., ALSHAREEF, H.N. and HE, J.-H. 2019. Heteroatom-mediated interactions between ruthenium single atoms and an MXene support for efficient hydrogen evolution. Advanced materials [online], 31(48), article number 1903841. Available from:

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Sep 12, 2019
Online Publication Date Oct 17, 2019
Publication Date Nov 28, 2019
Deposit Date Oct 24, 2023
Publicly Available Date Dec 11, 2023
Journal Advanced materials
Print ISSN 0935-9648
Electronic ISSN 1521-4095
Publisher Wiley
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 31
Issue 48
Article Number 1903841
Keywords Hydrogen evolution; Photocathodes; Single atom catalysts
Public URL


You might also like

Downloadable Citations