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Is age discrimination a risk factor for frailty progression and frailty development among older adults? A prospective cohort analysis of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

Aminu, Abodunrin Quadri; Torrance, Nicola; Grant, Aileen; Kydd, Angela

Authors

Abodunrin Quadri Aminu

Angela Kydd



Abstract

With the increasing global burden of frailty on healthcare resources, it is important to understand the modifiable risk factors of frailty. This study examined perceived age discrimination as a potential risk factor for frailty progression and frailty development among older adults. Prospective cohort study using data from Waves 5 to 9 of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA). Data on perceived age discrimination was collected only in Wave 5 of ELSA and analysed as baseline data in this study. Frailty was defined using the Frailty Index (FI) scores (0 to 1), calculated using the multidimensional deficits (scores ≥ 0.25 were considered frail). Binomial generalised estimating equation models (GEE) were fitted in R studio using perceived age discrimination as the main predictor with age, gender, long-standing illness, cognition, socioeconomic status (SES) as covariates. Odd ratios were reported with 95% confidence intervals (CI). A total sample of 2,385 ELSA participants were included in the analysis. 55.8% (n=1312) were female, mean age 71.9 (SD ±5.27) years and baseline frailty prevalence was 12.1% (n=288). Perceived age discrimination was reported by 38.4% (n=916) of the participants. Both frailty progression (OR 1.50, CI [1.26- 1.70]) and frailty development (OR 1.39, CI [1.14-1.62]) were significantly associated with perceived age discrimination in the fully adjusted models. Age (80+ years) (OR 3.72, CI [2.84-4.86]) and long-standing illness (OR 5.45, CI [4.43-6.67]) had the strongest association with respondents' frailty progression. Perceived age discrimination significantly increased the risk of frailty progression and frailty development among ELSA participants.

Citation

AMINU, A.Q., TORRANCE, N., GRANT, A. and KYDD, A. 2024. Is age discrimination a risk factor for frailty progression and frailty development among older adults? A prospective cohort analysis of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Archives of gerontology and geriatrics [online], 118, article number 105282. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.archger.2023.105282

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Nov 21, 2023
Online Publication Date Nov 23, 2023
Publication Date Mar 31, 2024
Deposit Date Nov 24, 2023
Publicly Available Date Nov 24, 2023
Journal Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
Print ISSN 0167-4943
Electronic ISSN 1872-6976
Publisher Elsevier
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 118
Article Number 105282
DOI https://doi.org/10.1016/j.archger.2023.105282
Keywords Perceived age discrimination; Frailty; Ageism; Healthy ageing; Older adults
Public URL https://rgu-repository.worktribe.com/output/2153073

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