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Subcutaneous fat patterning in athletes: selection of appropriate sites and standardisation of a novel ultrasound measurement technique: ad hoc working group on body composition, health and performance, under the auspices of the IOC Medical Commission.

Müller, Wolfram; Lohman, Timothy G.; Stewart, Arthur D.; Maughan, Ronald J.; Meyer, Nanna L.; Sardinha, Luis B.; Kirihennedige, Nuwanee; Reguant-Closa, Alba; Risoul-Salas, Vanessa; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn; Ahammer, Helmut; Anderhuber, Friedrich; Fürhapter-Rieger, Alfred; Kainz, Philipp; Materna, Wilfried; Pilsl, Ulrike; Pirstinger, Wolfram; Ackland, Timothy R.

Authors

Wolfram Müller

Timothy G. Lohman

Arthur D. Stewart

Ronald J. Maughan

Nanna L. Meyer

Luis B. Sardinha

Nuwanee Kirihennedige

Alba Reguant-Closa

Vanessa Risoul-Salas

Jorunn Sundgot-Borgen

Helmut Ahammer

Friedrich Anderhuber

Alfred Fürhapter-Rieger

Philipp Kainz

Wilfried Materna

Ulrike Pilsl

Wolfram Pirstinger

Timothy R. Ackland

Abstract

Background: Precise and accurate field methods for body composition analyses in athletes are needed urgently. Aim Standardisation of a novel ultrasound (US) technique for accurate and reliable measurement of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). Methods: Three observers captured US images of uncompressed SAT in 12 athletes and applied a semiautomatic evaluation algorithm for multiple SAT measurements. Results: Eight new sites are recommended: upper abdomen, lower abdomen, erector spinae, distal triceps, brachioradialis, lateral thigh, front thigh, medial calf. Obtainable accuracy was 0.2 mm (18 MHz probe; speed of sound: 1450 m/s). Reliability of SAT thickness sums (N=36): R2=0.998, SEE=0.55 mm, ICC (95% CI) 0.998 (0.994 to 0.999); observer differences from their mean: 95% of the SAT thickness sums were within {plusmn}1 mm (sums of SAT thicknesses ranged from 10 to 50 mm). Embedded fibrous tissues were also measured. Conclusions: A minimum of eight sites is suggested to accommodate inter-individual differences in SAT patterning. All sites overlie muscle with a clearly visible fascia, which eases the acquisition of clear images and the marking of these sites takes only a few minutes. This US method reaches the fundamental accuracy and precision limits for SAT measurements given by tissue plasticity and furrowed borders, provided the measurers are trained appropriately.

Journal Article Type Article
Publication Date Jan 1, 2016
Journal British journal of sports medicine
Print ISSN 0306-3674
Electronic ISSN 1473-0480
Publisher BMJ Publishing Group
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 50
Issue 1
Pages 45-54
Institution Citation MÜLLER, W., LOHMAN, T.G., STEWART, A.D., MAUGHAN, R.J., MEYER, N.L., SARDINHA, L.B., KIRIHENNEDIGE, N., REGUANT-CLOSA, A., RISOUL-SALAS, V., SUNDGOT-BORGEN, J., AHAMMER, H., ANDERHUBER, F., FÜRHAPTER-RIEGER, A., KAINZ, P., MATERNA, W., PILSL, U., PIRSTINGER, W. and ACKLAND, T.R 2016. Subcutaneous fat patterning in athletes: selection of appropriate sites and standardisation of a novel ultrasound measurement technique: ad hoc working group on body composition, health and performance, under the auspices of the IOC Medical Commission. British journal of sports medicine [online], 50(1), pages 45-54. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2015-095641
DOI https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2015-095641
Keywords Subcutaneous fat; Athletes; Body composition analyses; Novel ultrasound; Subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT)

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