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Variation in lifting kinematics related to individual intrinsic lumbar curvature: an investigation in healthy adults.

Pavlova, Anastasia V.; Meakin, Judith R.; Cooper, Kay; Barr, Rebecca J.; Aspden, Richard M.


Judith R. Meakin

Rebecca J. Barr

Richard M. Aspden


Objective: Lifting postures are frequently implicated in back pain. We previously related responses to a static load with intrinsic spine shape, and here we investigate the role of lumbar spine shape in lifting kinematics. Methods: Thirty healthy adults (18-65 years) performed freestyle, stoop and squat lifts with a weighted box (6-15kg, self-selected) while being recorded by Vicon motion capture. Internal spine shape was characterised using statistical shape modelling (SSM) from standing mid-sagittal MRIs. Associations were investigated between spine shapes quantified by SSM and peak flexion angles. Results: Two SSM modes described variations in overall lumbar curvature (mode 1 (M1), 55% variance) and the evenness of curvature distribution (mode 2 (M2), 12% variance). M1 was associated with greater peak pelvis (r=0.38, p=0.04) and smaller knee flexion (r=-0.40, p=0.03) angles; individuals with greater curviness preferred to lift with a stooped lifting posture. This was confirmed by analysis of those individuals with very curvy or very straight spines ($M1$>1 SD). There were no associations between peak flexion angles and mode scores in stoop or squat trials (p>0.05). Peak flexion angles were positively correlated between freestyle and squat trials but not between freestyle and stoop or squat and stoop, indicating that individuals adjusted knee flexion while maintaining their preferred range of lumbar flexion and that 'squatters' adapted better to different techniques than 'stoopers'. Conclusion: Spinal curvature affects preferred lifting styles, and individuals with curvier spines adapt more easily to different lifting techniques. Lifting tasks may need to be tailored to an individual's lumbar spine shape.


PAVLOVA, A.V., MEAKIN, J.R., COOPER, K., BARR, R.J. and ASPDEN, R.M. 2018. Variation in lifting kinematics related to individual intrinsic lumbar curvature: an investigation in healthy adults. BMJ open sport and exercise medicine [online], 4(1), article number 000374. Available from:

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Jun 25, 2018
Online Publication Date Jul 15, 2018
Publication Date Dec 31, 2018
Deposit Date Jul 17, 2018
Publicly Available Date Jul 17, 2018
Journal BMJ open sport and exercise medicine
Electronic ISSN 2055-7647
Publisher BMJ Publishing Group
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 4
Issue 1
Article Number 000374
Keywords Lumbar spine; Lifting postures; Back pain; Static load; Spine shape
Public URL


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