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Fatty acid and phospholipid chlorohydrins cause cell stress and endothelial adhesion.

Dever, Gary; Wainwright, Cherry L.; Kennedy, Simon; Spickett, Corinne M.


Gary Dever

Simon Kennedy

Corinne M. Spickett


The oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is thought to contribute to atherogenesis, which is an inflammatory disease involving activation of phagocytic cells. Myeloperoxidase, an enzyme which is able to produce hypochlorous acid (HOCl), is released from these phagocytic cells, and has been found in an active form in atherosclerotic plaques. HOCl can oxidize both the lipid and protein moiety of LDL, and HOCl-modified LDL has been found to be pro-inflammatory, although it is not known which component is responsible for this effect. As HOCl can oxidize lipids to give chlorohydrins, we hypothesized that phospholipid chlorohydrins might have toxic and pro-inflammatory effects. We have formed chlorohydrins from fatty acids (oleic, linoleic and arachidonic acids) and from phospholipids (stearoyl-oleoyl phosphatidylcholine, stearoyl-linoleoyl phosphatidylcholine and stearoyl-arachidonoyl phosphatidylcholine), and investigated various biological effects of these oxidation products. Fatty acid and phospholipid chlorohydrins were found to deplete ATP levels in U937 cells in a concentration-dependent manner, with significant effects observed at concentrations of 25 μM and above. Low concentrations (25 μM) of stearoyl-oleoyl phosphatidylcholine and stearoyl-arachidonoyl phosphatidylcholine chlorohydrins were also found to increase caspase-3 activity. Finally, stearoyl-oleoyl phosphatidylcholine chlorohydrin increased leukocyte adhesion to artery segments isolated from C57Bl/6 mice. These results demonstrate potentially harmful effects of lipid chlorohydrins, and suggest that they may contribute to some of the pro-inflammatory effects that HOCl-modified low density lipoprotein has been found to induce.


DEVER, G., WAINWRIGHT, C. L., KENNEDY, S. and SPICKETT, C. M. 2006. Fatty acid and phospholipid chlorohydrins cause cell stress and endothelial adhesion. Acta biochimica polonica [online], 53(4), pages 761-768. Available from:

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Dec 31, 2006
Online Publication Date Dec 31, 2006
Publication Date Dec 31, 2006
Deposit Date Jul 9, 2015
Publicly Available Date Jul 9, 2015
Journal Acta biochimica polonica
Print ISSN 0001-527X
Electronic ISSN 1734-154X
Publisher Polskie Towarzystwo Biochemiczne
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 53
Issue 4
Pages 761-768
Keywords Chlorinated phospholipids; Chlorinated fatty acids; ATP depletion; Atherosclerosis; Leukocyte adhesion
Public URL
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