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Mode I fracture toughness of optimized alkali-treated Bambusa Vulgaris bamboo by Box-Behnken design.

Roslan, Siti Amni; Hassan, Mohamad Zaki; Rasid, Zainudin A.; Bani, Nurul Aini; Sarip, Shamsul; Daud, Mohd Yusof Md; Muhammad-Sukki, Firdaus


Siti Amni Roslan

Mohamad Zaki Hassan

Zainudin A. Rasid

Nurul Aini Bani

Shamsul Sarip

Mohd Yusof Md Daud

Firdaus Muhammad-Sukki


Mokhtar Awang

Seyed Sattar Emamian

Farazila Yusof


Alkaline treatment is widely being used to treat natural fibres and it improves the fibre surface for better bonding with the polymer matrix. The aim of this study is to optimize the alkaline treatment variables that influence the strength of natural fibres, including bamboo, such as sodium hydroxide (NaOH) concentration, soaking and drying time. In this study, Box-Behnken design (BBD) of the response surface method was employed to set an experimental parameter of alkaline treatment for the bamboo specimen. In order to investigate the effect of treatment conditions on crack propagation behaviour of the bamboo along the longitudinal direction, Mode I interlaminar fracture toughness (GIC) tests were carried out. It can be suggested from the statistical analysis approach (ANOVA) that bamboo treated with 1 wt% concentration of NaOH is able to reach fracture toughness value up to 365.86 J/m2, which differs by only 0.82% from the experimental finding. It is also shown that all proposed variables for treatment in this study (i.e. the concentration of the NaOH) is highly significant with the soaking and drying time.

Start Date Nov 14, 2018
Publication Date Dec 31, 2020
Publisher Springer (part of Springer Nature)
Pages 565-575
Series Title Lecture notes in mechanical engineering
Series ISSN 2195-4364
Book Title Advances in material sciences and engineering
ISBN 9789811382963
Institution Citation ROSLAN, S.A., HASSAN, M.Z., RASID, Z.A., BANI, N.A., SARIP, S., DAUD, M.Y.M. and MUHAMMAD-SUKKI, F. 2019. Mode I fracture toughness of optimized alkali-treated Bambusa Vulgaris bamboo by Box-Behnken design. In Awang, M., Emamian, S.S. and Yusof, F. (eds.) Advances in material sciences and engineering: selected papers from the proceedings of the 4th international conference on mechanical, manufacturing and plant engineering (ICMMPE 2018), 14-15 November 2018, Melaka, Malaysia. Lecture notes in mechanical engineering. Singapore: Springer [online], pages 565-575. Available from:
Keywords Fracture toughness; Bamboo; Box-Benhken design


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