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Multi-residue enantioselective determination of emerging drug contaminants in seawater by solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

McKenzie, Katie; Moffat, Colin F; Petrie, Bruce

Authors

Katie McKenzie

Colin F Moffat

Bruce Petrie



Abstract

This study proposes a new multi-residue enantioselective method for the determination of emerging drug contaminants in sea water by solid phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). To achieve satisfactory enantiomeric separation with a vancomycin stationary phase it was essential to limit sodium chloride in extracted samples to [less than] 1 µg injection-1. This was achieved through a straightforward SPE method using a 50 mL water wash volume and analyte elution in acetonitrile. A Chiral-V enantioselective column (150 x 2.1mm; 2.7µm particle size) operated in polar ionic mode enabled simultaneous drug separations in 30 minutes. Analytes with enantioresolution E$ were the stimulants amphetamine and methamphetamine, the beta-agonist salbutamol, the beta-blockers propranolol, sotalol and acebutolol, the anti-depressants fluoxetine, venlafaxine, desmethylvenlafaxine and citalopram, and the antihistamine chlorpheniramine. Method quantitation limits were [less than] 10 ng L-1 and method trueness was 80-110% for most analytes. The method was applied to samples from the Forth and Clyde estuaries, Scotland. Chiral drugs were present at concentrations in the range 4-159 ng L-1 and several were in non-racemic form (enantiomeric fraction G 0.50) demonstrating enantiomer enrichment. This emphasises the need for further enantiospecific drug exposure and effect studies in the marine environment.

Journal Article Type Article
Publication Date Jun 14, 2020
Journal Analytical methods
Print ISSN 1759-9660
Electronic ISSN 1759-9679
Publisher Royal Society of Chemistry
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 12
Issue 22
Pages 2881-2892
Institution Citation MCKENZIE, K., MOFFAT, C.F. and PETRIE, B. 2020. Multi-residue enantioselective determination of emerging drug contaminants in seawater by solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Analytical methods [online], 12(22), pages 2881-2892. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1039/d0ay00801j
DOI https://doi.org/10.1039/d0ay00801j
Keywords Liquid chromatography; Tandem mass spectrometry; Chiral; Pharmaceutical; Drug

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