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A theoretically based cross-sectional survey on the behaviors and experiences of clinical pharmacists caring for patients with chronic kidney disease.

Alraiisi, F.; Stewart, D.; Ashley, C.; Fahmy, M.; Alnaamani, H.; Cunningham, S.


F. Alraiisi

D. Stewart

C. Ashley

M. Fahmy

H. Alnaamani


The literature shows a lack of evidence on pharmacists contributing to chronic kidney disease services. The aim was to determine pharmacists’ behaviors and experiences and perceptions of barriers and facilitators to implementation of models of care. A theoretically informed survey was developed and sent to pharmacist members of the United Kingdom renal pharmacy group. Sections included: demographics, clinical practice and prescribing practice. Questions were of various types; closed type and some open for comments. Attitudinal items on clinical/prescribing used 5-point Likert scale. Development/implementation items were derived from the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR). Analysis used descriptive statistics and open comments were analysed thematically. Ethical approval was granted by an academic institution. Response rate; 50% (n = 71), seven were incomplete and excluded. Respondents provided; inpatient general pharmaceutical care (n = 56, 87.5%), to those receiving dialysis (n = 54, 84.4%) and transplantation. Non-clinical roles; audits (n = 46, 71.9%), patient education (n = 31, 48.4%), only 7.8% (n = 5) doing academic research. For barrier/facilitators most strongly agreed/agreed with most CFIR items relating to clinical practice. A majority (n = 44, 68.7%) disagreed that they had sufficient time to practice clinically and 44 (68.7%) disagreed there was sufficient cover for services. For prescribing roles, 90.5% (n = 48) were currently actively prescribing. Although prescribing related CFIR items were largely positive, 39.6% (n = 19) disagreed about sufficient time to practice and 18.7% (n = 9) were neutral. Two thirds (n = 33, 68.7%) disagreed that there was sufficient cover for the prescribing. The majority of respondents provided general pharmaceutical care to dialysis and transplant patients, were confident in their abilities and tried new ways of working including independent prescribing. Many expressed that lack of resources was the main barrier to providing more advanced care. Further work is needed to explore these matters in more depth.


ALRAIISI, F., STEWART, D., ASHLEY, C., FAHMY, M., ALNAAMANI, H. and CUNNINGHAM, S. 2021. A theoretically based cross-sectional survey on the behaviors and experiences of clinical pharmacists caring for patients with chronic kidney disease. Research in social and administrative pharmacy [online], 17(3), pages 560-571. Available from:

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date May 3, 2020
Online Publication Date Jun 10, 2020
Publication Date Mar 31, 2021
Deposit Date Jul 28, 2020
Publicly Available Date Jun 11, 2021
Journal Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy
Print ISSN 1551-7411
Electronic ISSN 1934-8150
Publisher Elsevier
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 17
Issue 3
Pages 560-571
Keywords Chronic kidney disease; Clinical pharmacist; Survey; Behaviors and experiences
Public URL


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