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There’s a time and a place: temporal aspects of place-based stigma.

Butler-Warke, Alice



This paper provides an overview of current debates and themes in literature relating to place-based stigma, including a reflection on terminology use. Generally, we rely on Loïc Wacquant's framing of territorial stigma as a feature of advanced marginality. In this paper, drawing on my own research in Toxteth, Liverpool, I offer a critique of the Wacquantian approach, highlighting the limits of the advanced marginality framing of place-based stigma. The paper considers the global reach of placed-based stigma and the temporal aspect of stigma that must be taken into consideration when we consider how stigma is currently applied to communities. A key feature of this paper is the foregrounding of the concepts of 'core' and 'event' stigma, which have generally been a feature of literature in business and management. I argue that our understanding of how communities become stigmatized can be enhanced by framing place-based stigma in this temporal sense. Understanding how stigma becomes adhered to particular spaces, places and landscapes is necessary if we want to comprehend how this stigma transfers to the communities inhabiting these geographies. This paper suggests that we must look to the past, and to the voices who shape the past, in order to understand the present and to plan for the future.


BUTLER-WARKE, A. 2021. There's a time and a place: temporal aspects of place-based stigma. Community development journal [online], 56(2), pages 203-219. Available from:

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Oct 2, 2020
Online Publication Date Oct 2, 2020
Publication Date Apr 30, 2021
Deposit Date Mar 19, 2021
Publicly Available Date Oct 3, 2022
Journal Community development journal
Print ISSN 0010-3802
Electronic ISSN 1468-2656
Publisher Oxford University Press (OUP)
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 56
Issue 2
Pages 203-219
Keywords Social stigma; Geographical discrimination; Discrimination; Communities; Stigma; Wacquant; Territorial stigma; Place-based stigma; Community; Time; Liverpool
Public URL