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Mathematical modelling of a static concentrating photovoltaic: simulation and experimental validation.

Muhammad-Sukki, Firdaus; Farooq, Haroon; Abu-Bakar, Siti Hawa; Ardila-Rey, Jorge Alfredo; Sellami, Nazmi; Kilpatrick, Ciaran; Muhtazaruddin, Mohd Nabil; Bani, Nurul Aini; Zulkipli, Muhammad


Firdaus Muhammad-Sukki

Haroon Farooq

Siti Hawa Abu-Bakar

Jorge Alfredo Ardila-Rey

Nazmi Sellami

Ciaran Kilpatrick

Mohd Nabil Muhtazaruddin

Nurul Aini Bani

Muhammad Zulkipli


For the past twenty years, there has been increasing interest and investment in solar photovoltaic (PV) technology. One particular area of interest is the development of concentrating PV (CPV), especially for use in building integration. Many CPV designs have been developed and investigated. This paper aims at producing a mathematical modelling using MATLAB programme to predict the current-voltage (I-V) and power-voltage (P-V) characteristics of a static CPV. The MATLAB programme could also simulate the angular response of the CPV designs-which has never been explored in the previous literature. In this paper, a CPV known as the rotationally asymmetrical dielectric totally internally reflecting concentrator (RADTIRC) was analysed. A specific RADTIRC design that has an acceptance angle of ±40° was investigated in this paper. A mathematical modelling was used to simulate the angular characteristics of the RADTIRC from −50° to 50° with an increment 5°. For any CPV, we propose that the value of opto-electronic gain, Copto-e needs to be included in the mathematical model, which were obtained from experiments. The range of incident angle (±50°) was selected to demonstrate that the RADTIRC is capable of capturing the sun rays within its acceptance angle of ±40°. In each simulation, the I-V and P-V characteristics were produced, and the short circuit current (Isc), the open-circuit voltage (Voc), the maximum power (Pmax), the fill factor (FF) and the opto-electronic gain (Copto-e) were determined and recorded. The results from the simulations were validated via experiments. It was found that the simulation model is able to predict the I-V and P-V characteristics of the RADTIRC as well as its angular response, with the highest error recorded for the Isc, Voc, Pmax, FF and Copto-e was 2.1229%, 5.3913%, 9.9681%, 4.4231% and 0.0000% respectively when compared with the experiment.


MUHAMMAD-SUKKI, F., FAROOQ, H., ABU-BAKAR, S.H., ARDILA-REY, J.A., SELLAMI, N., KILPATRICK, C., MUHTAZARUDDIN, M.N., BANI, N.A. and ZULKIPLI, M. 2021. Mathematical modelling of a static concentrating photovoltaic: simulation and experimental validation. Applied sciences [online], 11(9), article 3894. Available from:

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Apr 23, 2021
Online Publication Date Apr 25, 2021
Publication Date May 1, 2021
Deposit Date May 20, 2021
Publicly Available Date May 20, 2021
Journal Applied Sciences
Electronic ISSN 2076-3417
Publisher MDPI
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 11
Issue 9
Article Number 3894
Keywords Solar photovoltaic; Concentrating photovoltaic; Simulation; Experiment
Public URL


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