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Assessing system of systems information security risk with OASoSIS.

Ki-Aries, Duncan; Faily, Shamal; Dogan, Huseyin; Williams, Christopher


Duncan Ki-Aries

Shamal Faily

Huseyin Dogan

Christopher Williams


The term System of Systems (SoS) is used to describe the coming together of independent systems, collaborating to achieve a new or higher purpose. However, the SoS concept is often misunderstood within operational environments, providing challenges towards the secure design and operation of SoSs. Limitations in existing literature indicates a need for discovery towards identifying a combination of concepts, models, and techniques suitable for assessing SoS security risk and related human factor concerns for SoS Requirements Engineering. In this article, we present OASoSIS, representing an information security risk assessment and modelling process to assist risk-based decision making in SoS Requirements Engineering. A characterisation process is introduced to capture the SoS context, supporting a SoS security risk assessment process that extends OCTAVE Allegro towards a SoS context. Resulting risk data provides a focused means to assess and model the SoS information security risk and related human factors, integrating tool-support using CAIRIS. A medical evacuation SoS case study scenario was used to test, illustrate, and validate the alignment of concepts, models, and techniques for assessing SoS information security risks with OASoSIS, where findings provide a positive basis for future work.


KI-ARIES, D., FAILY, S., DOGAN, H. and WILLIAMS, C. 2022. Assessing system of systems information security risk with OASoSIS. Computers and security [online], 117, article 102690. Available from:

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Mar 9, 2022
Online Publication Date Mar 21, 2022
Publication Date Jun 30, 2022
Deposit Date Mar 14, 2022
Publicly Available Date Mar 22, 2023
Journal Computers and security
Print ISSN 0167-4048
Electronic ISSN 1872-6208
Publisher Elsevier
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 117
Article Number 102690
Keywords System of systems; Information security; Risk; Human factors; Requirements engineering; CAIRIS
Public URL


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