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Evaluating privacy: determining user privacy expectations on the web.

Pilton, Callum; Faily, Shamal; Henriksen-Bulmer, Jane


Callum Pilton

Shamal Faily

Jane Henriksen-Bulmer


Individuals don’t often have privacy expectations. When asked to consider them, privacy realities were frequently perceived not to meet these expectations. Some websites exploit the trust of individuals by selling, sharing, or analysing their data. Without intervention, individuals do not often understand privacy implications, nor do anything to address it. This study has identified that many users do not have privacy expectations. An extension developed for this study improved privacy awareness, privacy behaviour, and created privacy expectations in participants. The extension also demonstrated that privacy-focused behavioural changes occur when individuals consider the implications of privacy policies, and are exposed to the ways in which their data is being used.


PILTON, C., FAILY, S., and HENRIKSEN-BULMER, J. 2021. Evaluating privacy: determining user privacy expectations on the web. Computers and security [online], 105, article 102241. Available from:

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Feb 18, 2021
Online Publication Date Feb 24, 2021
Publication Date Jun 30, 2021
Deposit Date Sep 3, 2021
Publicly Available Date Sep 3, 2021
Journal Computers and security
Print ISSN 0167-4048
Publisher Elsevier
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 105
Article Number 102241
Keywords Privacy paradox; Chrome extension; Case study; Privacy; Privacy settings; Privacy policy; General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR); Web tracking
Public URL


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