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Replacing human input in spam email detection using deep learning.

Nicho, Mathew; Majdani, Farzan; McDermott, Christopher D.

Authors

Mathew Nicho

Farzan Majdani



Contributors

Helmut Degen
Editor

Stavroula Ntoa
Editor

Abstract

The Covid-19 pandemic has been a driving force for a substantial increase in online activity and transactions across the globe. As a consequence, cyber-attacks, particularly those leveraging email as the preferred attack vector, have also increased exponentially since Q1 2020. Despite this, email remains a popular communication tool. Previously, in an effort to reduce the amount of spam entering a users inbox, many email providers started to incorporate spam filters into their products. However, many commercial spam filters rely on a human to train the filter, leaving a margin of risk if sufficient training has not occurred. In addition, knowing this, hackers employ more targeted and nuanced obfuscation methods to bypass in-built spam filters. In response to this continued problem, there is a growing body of research on the use of machine learning techniques for spam filtering. In many cases, detection results have shown great promise, but often still rely on human input to classify training datasets. In this study, we explore specifically the use of deep learning as a method of reducing human input required for spam detection. First, we evaluate the efficacy of popular spam detection methods/tools/techniques (freeware). Next, we narrow down machine learning techniques to select the appropriate method for our dataset. This was then compared with the accuracy of freeware spam detection tools to present our results. Our results showed that our deep learning model, based on simple word embedding and global max pooling (SWEM-max) had higher accuracy (98.41%) than both Thunderbird (95%) and Mailwasher (92%) which are based on Bayesian spam filtering. Finally, we postulate whether this improvement is enough to accept the removal of human input in spam email detection.

Citation

NICHO, M., MAJDANI, F. and MCDERMOTT, C.D. 2022. Replacing human input in spam email detection using deep learning. In Degen, H. and NTOA, S. (eds.) Artificial intelligence in HCI: proceedings of 3rd International conference on artificial intelligence in HCI (human-computer interaction) 2022 (AI-HCI 2022), co-located with the 24th International conference on human-computer interaction 2022 (HCI International 2022), 26 June - 1 July 2022, [virtual conference]. Lecture notes in artificial intelligence (LNAI), 13336. Cham: Springer [online], pages 387-404. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-05643-7_25

Conference Name 3rd International conference on artificial intelligence in HCI (human-computer interaction) 2022 (AI-HCI 2022), co-located with the 24th International conference on human-computer interaction 2022 (HCI International 2022)
Conference Location (virtual conference)
Start Date Jun 26, 2022
End Date Jul 1, 2022
Acceptance Date Apr 25, 2022
Online Publication Date May 15, 2022
Publication Date Dec 31, 2022
Deposit Date Jun 9, 2022
Publicly Available Date May 16, 2023
Publisher Springer Verlag
Volume 13336
Pages 387-404
Series Title Lecture notes in artificial intelligence (LNAI)
Series ISSN 0302-9743
Book Title Artificial intelligence in HCI
ISBN 9783031056420
DOI https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-05643-7_25
Keywords Deep learning; Global max pooling; Phishing emails; Simple word embedding; Spam detection
Public URL https://rgu-repository.worktribe.com/output/1681939