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Prevention and early treatment of the long-term physical effects of COVID-19 in adults: design of a randomised controlled trial of resistance exercise: CISCO-21.

Morrow, A.; Gray, Stuart R.; Bayes, H.K.; Sykes, R.; McGarry, E.; Anderson, D.; Boiskin, D.; Burke, C.; Cleland, J.G.F.; Goodyear, C.; Ibbotson, T.; Lang, C.C.; McConnachie; Mair, F.; Mangion, K.; Patel, M.; Sattar, N.; Taggart, D.; Taylor, R.; Dawkes, S.; Berry, C.


A. Morrow

Stuart R. Gray

H.K. Bayes

R. Sykes

E. McGarry

D. Anderson

D. Boiskin

C. Burke

J.G.F. Cleland

C. Goodyear

T. Ibbotson

C.C. Lang


F. Mair

K. Mangion

M. Patel

N. Sattar

D. Taggart

R. Taylor

C. Berry


Background: Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) infection causes persistent health problems such as breathlessness, chest pain and fatigue, and therapies for the prevention and early treatment of post-COVID-19 syndromes are needed. Accordingly, we are investigating the effect of a resistance exercise intervention on exercise capacity and health status following COVID-19 infection. Methods: A two-arm randomised, controlled clinical trial including 220 adults with a diagnosis of COVID-19 in the preceding 6 months. Participants will be classified according to clinical presentation: Group A, not hospitalised due to COVID but persisting symptoms for at least 4 weeks leading to medical review; Group B, discharged after an admission for COVID and with persistent symptoms for at least 4 weeks; or Group C, convalescing in hospital after an admission for COVID. Participants will be randomised to usual care or usual care plus a personalised and pragmatic resistance exercise intervention for 12 weeks. The primary outcome is the incremental shuttle walks test (ISWT) 3 months after randomisation with secondary outcomes including spirometry, grip strength, short performance physical battery (SPPB), frailty status, contacts with healthcare professionals, hospitalisation and questionnaires assessing health-related quality of life, physical activity, fatigue and dyspnoea. Discussion: Ethical approval has been granted by the National Health Service (NHS) West of Scotland Research Ethics Committee (REC) (reference: GN20CA537) and recruitment is ongoing. Trial findings will be disseminated through patient and public forums, scientific conferences and journals. Trial registration: NCT04900961. Prospectively registered on 25 May 2021.


MORROW, A., GRAY, S.R., BAYES, H.K. et al. 2022. Prevention and early treatment of the long-term physical effects of COVID-19 in adults: design of a randomised controlled trial of resistance exercise: CISCO-21. Trials [online], 23, article number 660. Available from:

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Aug 4, 2022
Online Publication Date Aug 15, 2022
Publication Date Dec 31, 2022
Deposit Date Sep 1, 2022
Publicly Available Date Sep 1, 2022
Journal Trials
Print ISSN 1745-6215
Electronic ISSN 1745-6215
Publisher Springer
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 23
Article Number 660
Keywords Resistance exercise; Long COVID; SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Rehabilitation; Randomised controlled trial
Public URL
PMID 35971155
Additional Information This article has been published with separate supporting information. This supporting information has been incorporated into a single file on this repository and can be found at the end of this document.


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