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Graphene oxide's regenerative acidity and its effects on the hydration of type II Portland cement.

Sheikh, Taimur Mazhar; Anwar, Mohammed Parvez; Muthoosamy, Kasturi; Jaganathan, Jayaprakash; Chan, Andy; Mohamed, Abdullahi Ali


Taimur Mazhar Sheikh

Mohammed Parvez Anwar

Kasturi Muthoosamy

Jayaprakash Jaganathan

Andy Chan

Abdullahi Ali Mohamed


Incorporation of graphene oxide (GO) has been found to considerably improve the hydration process, strength and durability of Portland cement. However, the exact nature of its chemical interactions with the cement are unclear. In this study, GO of varying amounts of hydroxyl groups were synthesized to investigate the effects of these interactions on the hydration of an environment-friendly Type II Portland Cement. XPS, Raman, and FTIR analysis verified the functional group differences between the GO types, and SEM and AFM observations illustrated the existence of a hydronium layer coating the high-hydroxyl GO (HGO). The hydronium layer neutralizes small base additions as measured through titration, and regenerates via protonation of resulting water by HGO's hydroxyl groups, confirmed via zeta potential analysis. In cement, HGO shows accelerated and greater early-age hydration, measured via heat of hydration and XRD. Finer microstructural density of HGO-cement was also observed from BET and microCT analysis. On the other hand, low-hydroxyl GO (XGO) cement ‘locks’ C-S-H on the GO sheet, preventing its propagation in the cement microstructure, as observed by Si-O bond changes during hydration. Lastly, HGO-concrete showed significantly improved workability (>40%), 28-day compressive strength (29%), and 28-day flexural strength (24%) with respect to control. Conversely, XGO-concrete showed reduced workability (−40%), and smaller 28-day strength improvements (compressive by 5%, and flexural by 8%). This research leads to new understandings of how GO may improve the strength, workability, and durability of concrete, with potentially less overall cement consumption and superplasticizer use.


SHEIKH, T.M., ANWAR, M.P., MUTHOOSAMY, K., JAGANATHAN, J., CHAN, A. and MOHAMED, A.A. 2023. Graphene oxide's regenerative acidity and its effects on the hydration of type II Portland cement. Construction and building materials [online], 364, article 129933. Available from:

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Nov 28, 2022
Online Publication Date Dec 12, 2022
Publication Date Jan 18, 2023
Deposit Date Aug 8, 2023
Publicly Available Date Dec 13, 2023
Journal Construction and building materials
Print ISSN 0950-0618
Electronic ISSN 1879-0526
Publisher Elsevier
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 364
Article Number 129933
Keywords Nanomaterials; Graphene oxide; Concrete; Cement; MicroCT; Functionalized
Public URL
Additional Information This article has been published with separate supporting information. This supporting information has been incorporated into a single file on this repository and can be found at the end of the file associated with this output.


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