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Season, storage and extraction method impact on the phytochemical profile of Terminalia ivorensis.

Moomin, Aliu; Russell, Wendy R.; Knott, Rachel M.; Scobbie, Lorraine; Mensah, Kwesi Boadu; Adu-Gyamfi, Paa Kofi Tawiah; Duthie, Susan J.


Wendy R. Russell

Rachel M. Knott

Lorraine Scobbie

Kwesi Boadu Mensah

Paa Kofi Tawiah Adu-Gyamfi


Terminalia ivorensis (TI) is used in West African ethnomedicine for the treatment of conditions including ulcers, malaria and wounds. Despite its widespread use, the phytochemical profile of TI remains largely undetermined. This research investigated the effects of extraction method, season, and storage conditions on the phytochemical composition of TI to contribute towards understanding the potential benefits. TI bark was collected in September 2014, September 2018 and February 2018 during the rainy or dry seasons in Eastern Region, Ghana. Samples were extracted sequentially with organic solvents (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and ethanol) or using water (traditional). Metabolites were identified by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry and compared statistically by ANOVA. A total of 82 different phytochemicals were identified across all samples. A greater yield of the major phytochemicals (44%, p < 0.05) was obtained by water as compared with organic extraction. There was also a higher concentration of metabolites present in cold (63%, p < 0.05) compared with hot water extraction. A significantly (p < 0.05) higher number of phytochemicals were identified from TI collected in the dry (85%) compared to the rainy season (69%). TI bark stored for four years retained 84% of the major phytochemicals. This work provides important information on composition and how this is modified by growing conditions, storage and method of extraction informing progress on the development of TI as a prophylactic formulation or medicine.


MOOMIN, A., RUSSELL, W.R., KNOTT, R.M., SCOBBIE, L., MENSAH, K.B., ADU-GYAMFI, P.K.T. and DUTHIE, S.J. 2023. Season, storage and extraction method impact on the phytochemical profile of Terminalia ivorensis. BMC plant biology [online], 23, article number 162. Available from:

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Feb 28, 2023
Online Publication Date Mar 25, 2023
Publication Date Dec 31, 2023
Deposit Date Apr 3, 2023
Publicly Available Date Apr 3, 2023
Journal BMC plant biology
Electronic ISSN 1471-2229
Publisher Springer
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 23
Article Number 162
Keywords Terminalia ivorensis; Phytochemicals; Extraction methods; Plant-based medicines; Soxhlet extraction; Secondary metabolites; Season; Storage
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