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Crystal-defect engineering of electrode materials for energy storage and conversion.

Wang, J.; Zhao, X.; Zou, G.; Zhang, L.; Han, S.; Li, Y.; Liu, D.; Fernandez, C.; Li, L.; Ren, L.; Peng, Q.


J. Wang

X. Zhao

G. Zou

L. Zhang

S. Han

Y. Li

D. Liu

L. Li

L. Ren

Q. Peng


Crystal-defect engineering (CDE) in electrode materials is an emerging research area for tailoring properties, which opens up unprecedented possibilities not only in battery and catalysis, but also in controlling physical, chemical, and electronic properties. In the past few years, numerous types of research have been performed to alter the surface/interface electronic structure of electrode materials or to optimize the physical and chemical properties of electrode materials, which improves their electrochemical performance. However, it is still challenging to describe the effects of the inherent or intentionally created defects of various types on energy storage and energy conversion systems, dependent on the perspective of crystal structural defects. In this review, the definition, classification, characterization, and model simulation of crystal defects are firstly described. Subsequently, the manufacturing methods of crystal defects and the application of different kinds of crystal defects in the fields of batteries and catalysis are emphasized. Finally, the potential challenges and opportunities of defective electrode materials in relation to controllable preparation, in-situ characterization, and commercial applications are discussed, providing a perspective for future development.


WANG, J., ZHAO, X., ZOU, G., ZHANG, L., HAN, S., LI, Y., LIU, D., FERNANDEZ, C., LI, L., REN, L. and PENG, Q. 2023. Crystal-defect engineering of electrode materials for energy storage and conversion. Materials today nano [online], 22, article number 100336. Available from:

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Apr 6, 2023
Online Publication Date Apr 9, 2023
Publication Date Jun 30, 2023
Deposit Date Apr 25, 2023
Publicly Available Date Apr 10, 2024
Journal Materials today nano
Print ISSN 2588-8420
Publisher Elsevier
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 22
Article Number 100336
Keywords Crystal defects; Electrode materials; Energy storage; Energy conversion; Catalyst
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