Skip to main content

Research Repository

Advanced Search

Anthropogenic emissions of atomic chlorine precursors in the Yangtze River delta region, China.

Yi, Xin; Yin, Sijia; Huang, Ling; Li, Hongli; Wang, Yangjun; Wang, Qian; Chan, Andy; Traoré, Dramane; Ooi, Maggie Chel Gee; Chen, Yonghang; Allen, David T.; Li, Li


Xin Yi

Sijia Yin

Ling Huang

Hongli Li

Yangjun Wang

Qian Wang

Andy Chan

Dramane Traoré

Maggie Chel Gee Ooi

Yonghang Chen

David T. Allen

Li Li


Chlorine radical plays an important role in the formation of ozone and secondary aerosols in the troposphere. It is hence important to develop comprehensive emissions inventory of chlorine precursors in order to enhance our understanding of the role of chlorine chemistry in ozone and secondary pollution issues. Based on a bottom-up methodology, this study presents a comprehensive emission inventory for major atomic chlorine precursors in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region of China for the year 2017. Four primary chlorine precursors are considered in this study: hydrogen chloride (HCl), fine particulate chloride (Cl−) (Cl− in PM2.5), chlorine gas (Cl2), and hypochlorous acid (HClO) with emissions estimated for twelve source categories. The total emissions of these four species in the YRD region are estimated to be 20,424 t, 15,719 t, 1556 and 9331 t, respectively. The emissions of HCl are substantial, with major emissions from biomass burning and coal combustion, together accounting for 68% of the total HCl emissions. Fine particulate Cl− is mainly emitted from industrial processing, biomass burning and waste incineration. The emissions of Cl2 and HClO are mainly associated with usage of chlorine-containing disinfectants, for example, water treatment, wastewater treatment, and swimming pools. Emissions of each chlorine precursor are spatially allocated based on the characteristics of individual source category. This study provides important basic dataset for further studies with respect to the effects of chlorine chemistry on the formation of air pollution complex in the YRD region.


YI, X., YIN, S., HUANG, L., LI, H., WANG, Y., WANG, Q., CHAN, A., TRAORÉ, D., OOI, M.C.G., CHEN, Y., ALLEN, D.T. and LI, L. 2021. Anthropogenic emissions of atomic chlorine precursors in the Yangtze River Delta region, China. Science of the total environment [online], 771, article 144644. Available from:

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Dec 15, 2020
Online Publication Date Jan 28, 2021
Publication Date Jun 1, 2021
Deposit Date Jun 30, 2023
Publicly Available Date May 31, 2024
Journal Science of the total environment
Print ISSN 0048-9697
Electronic ISSN 1879-1026
Publisher Elsevier
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 771
Article Number 144644
Keywords Chlorine; Emissions inventory; Yangtze River delta
Public URL


You might also like

Downloadable Citations