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3D harmonic loss: towards task-consistent and time-friendly 3D object detection on edge for V2X orchestration.

Zhang, Haolin; Mekala, M.S.; Yang, Dongfang; Isaacs, John; Nain, Zulkar; Park, Ju H.; Jung, Ho-Youl


Haolin Zhang

Dongfang Yang

Zulkar Nain

Ju H. Park

Ho-Youl Jung


The use of edge computing for 3D perception has garnered interest in intelligent transportation systems (ITS) due to its potential to enhance Vehicle-to-Everything (V2X) orchestration through real-time traffic monitoring. The ability to accurately measure depth information in the environment using LiDAR has led to a growing emphasis on 3D detection based on this technology, which has significantly advanced the field of 3D perception. However, the computationally-intensive nature of these operations has made it challenging to meet the real-time deployment requirements using existing methods. The object detection task in the pointcloud domain is hindered by a substantial inconsistency problem caused by its high sparsity, which remains unaddressed. This paper conducts an in-depth analysis of the issue, which has been brought to light by recent research on detecting inconsistency problems in image specialization. To address this problem, we propose a solution in the form of a 3D harmonic loss function, which aims to alleviate the inconsistent predictions based on pointcloud data. In addition, we showcase the viability of optimizing 3D harmonic loss mathematically. Our simulations employ the KITTI dataset and DAIR-V2X-I dataset, and our proposed approach significantly surpasses the performance of benchmark models. Additionally, we validate the efficiency of our proposed model through its deployment on an edge device (Jetson Xavier TX) in a simulated environment.


ZHANG, H., MEKALA, M.S., YANG, D., ISAACS, J., NAIN, Z., PARK, J.H. and JUNG, H.-Y. 2023. 3D harmonic loss: towards task-consistent and time-friendly 3D object detection on edge for V2X orchestration. IEEE transactions on vehicular technology [online], 72(12), pages 15268-15279. Available from:

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Jun 23, 2023
Online Publication Date Jul 4, 2023
Publication Date Dec 31, 2023
Deposit Date Jul 12, 2023
Publicly Available Date Jul 20, 2023
Journal IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Print ISSN 0018-9545
Electronic ISSN 1939-9359
Publisher Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 72
Issue 12
Pages 15268-15279
Keywords Vehicle technology; Edge computing; Vehicle-to-everything (V2X ) orchestration; 3D harmonic loss
Public URL


ZHANG 2023 3D harmonic loss (AAM) (23.4 Mb)

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