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Vitamin D metabolites are associated with musculoskeletal injury in young adults: a prospective cohort study.

Carswell, Alexander T.; O'Leary, Thomas J.; Swinton, Paul; Jackson, Sarah; Tang, Jonathan C.Y.; Oliver, Samuel J.; Izard, Rachel M.; Walsh, Neil P.; Fraser, William D.; Greeves, Julie P.

Authors

Alexander T. Carswell

Thomas J. O'Leary

Sarah Jackson

Jonathan C.Y. Tang

Samuel J. Oliver

Rachel M. Izard

Neil P. Walsh

William D. Fraser

Julie P. Greeves



Abstract

The relationship between vitamin D metabolites and lower body (pelvis and lower limb) overuse injury is unclear. In a prospective cohort study, we investigated the association between vitamin D metabolites and incidence of lower body overuse musculoskeletal and bone stress injury in young adults undergoing initial military training during all seasons. In 1637 men and 530 women (aged 22.6 ± 7.5 years; body mass index [BMI], 24.0 ± 2.6 kg/m-2; 94.3% white ethnicity), we measured serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (24,25(OH)2D) by high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) by immunoassay during week 1 of training. We examined whether the relationship between 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D:24,25(OH)2D ratio was associated with overuse injury. During 12 weeks of training, 21.0% sustained ≥1 overuse musculoskeletal injury, and 5.6% sustained ≥1 bone stress injury. After controlling for sex, BMI, 2.4 km run time, smoking, bone injury history, and Army training course (Officer, standard, or Infantry), lower body overuse musculoskeletal injury incidence was higher for participants within the second lowest versus highest quartile of 24,25(OH)2D (odds ratio [OR] = 1.62; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.13–2.32; p = 0.009) and lowest versus highest cluster of 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D:24,25(OH)2D (OR = 6.30; 95% CI 1.89–21.2; p = 0.003). Lower body bone stress injury incidence was higher for participants within the lowest versus highest quartile of 24,25(OH)2D (OR = 4.02; 95% CI 1.82–8.87; p < 0.001) and lowest versus highest cluster of 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D:24,25(OH)2D (OR = 22.08; 95% CI 3.26–149.4; p = 0.001), after controlling for the same covariates. Greater conversion of 25(OH)D to 24,25(OH)2D, relative to 1,25(OH)2D (ie, low 1,25(OH)2D:24,25(OH)2D), and higher serum 24,25(OH)2D were associated with a lower incidence of lower body overuse musculoskeletal and bone stress injury. Serum 24,25(OH)2D may have a role in preventing overuse injury in young adults undertaking arduous physical training.

Citation

CARSWELL, A.T., O'LEARY, T.J., SWINTON, P., JACKSON, S., TANG, J.C.Y., OLIVER, S.J., IZARD, R.M., WALSH, N.P., FRASER, W.D. and GREEVES, J.P. 2023. Vitamin D metabolites are associated with musculoskeletal injury in young adults: a prospective cohort study. Journal of bone and mineral research [online], 38(10), pages 1453-1464. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1002/jbmr.4890

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Jul 26, 2023
Online Publication Date Aug 1, 2023
Publication Date Oct 31, 2023
Deposit Date Aug 17, 2023
Publicly Available Date Aug 17, 2023
Journal Journal of bone and mineral research
Print ISSN 0884-0431
Electronic ISSN 1523-4681
Publisher Wiley
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 38
Issue 10
Pages 1453-1464
DOI https://doi.org/10.1002/jbmr.4890
Keywords Vitamin D; Injury; Nutrition; Exercise; Musculoskeletal
Public URL https://rgu-repository.worktribe.com/output/2029518
Additional Information This article has been published with separate supporting information. This supporting information has been incorporated into a single file on this repository and can be found at the end of the file associated with this output.

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Publisher Licence URL
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/

Copyright Statement
© 2023 Crown copyright and The Authors. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR). This article is published with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and the King's Printer for Scotland.

Version
Final VOR uploaded 2023.11.14






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