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Numerical investigation of blade roughness impact on the aerodynamic performance and wake behavior of horizontal axis wind turbine.

Mian, H.H.; Siddiqui, M.S.; Yang, L.; Kvamsdal, T.; Asim, T.


H.H. Mian

M.S. Siddiqui

L. Yang

T. Kvamsdal


The prolonged operation of wind turbines in harsh offshore environments leads to deterioration and roughness accumulation on the blade surface. This roughness, particularly on the leading edge and other surfaces, can affect the laminar-to-turbulent transition, alter the flow characteristics in the turbine wake and turbulent boundary layer, and become critical for the accurate design and performance analysis of offshore horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWT). This study investigates the effects of blade surface roughness on the aerodynamic performance and wake evolution of the NREL Phase VI wind turbine rotor using the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) technique. First, 2D simulations are validated against experimental data of the S809 airfoil. Then, full-scale 3D simulations of the complete turbine model are conducted with roughness effects to simulate natural conditions. The results show that surface roughness reduces the blade's aerodynamic performance. The rough surface increases the boundary layer thickness, causing flow separation and turbulence, which decrease the lift generated by the blade and increase its drag, resulting in decreased overall blade performance. At higher wind speeds, surface roughness has a negligible effect on turbine performance due to flow separation at the leading edge. The analysis of surface roughness effects on the turbine wake flow indicates that blade roughness positively correlates with wake recovery, where the wake velocity recovers faster with an increase in roughness height.


MIAN, H.H., SIDDIQUI, M.S., YANG, L., KVAMSDAL, T. and ASIM, T. 2023. Numerical investigation of blade roughness impact on the aerodynamic performance and wake behavior of horizontal axis wind turbine. Journal of physics: conference series [online], 2626: proceedings from the 2023 EERA (European Energy Research Alliance) DeepWind conference, 18-20 January 2023, Trondheim, Norway, article 012073. Available from:

Journal Article Type Article
Conference Name 2023 EERA (European Energy Research Alliance) DeepWind conference
Conference Location Trondheim, Norway
Acceptance Date Oct 16, 2023
Online Publication Date Nov 6, 2023
Publication Date Dec 31, 2023
Deposit Date Dec 5, 2023
Publicly Available Date Dec 5, 2023
Journal Journal of physics: conference series
Print ISSN 1742-6588
Electronic ISSN 1742-6596
Publisher IOP Publishing
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 2626
Article Number 012073
Keywords Wind turbines; Offshore environments; Blades; Performance analysis; Horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWT); Aerodynamic performance
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MIAN 2023 Numerical investigation of blade (VOR) (12.3 Mb)

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Copyright Statement
Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd. Content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 licence. Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI.

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