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Wear-resistant and adherent nanodiamond composite thin film for durable and sustainable silicon carbide mechanical seals.

Egiza, Mohamed; Diab, Mohamed Ragab; Zia, Abdul Wasy; Murasawa, Koki; Faisal, Nadimul; Yoshitake, Tsuyoshi


Mohamed Egiza

Mohamed Ragab Diab

Abdul Wasy Zia

Koki Murasawa

Tsuyoshi Yoshitake


In response to environmental concerns, there is a growing demand for durable and sustainable mechanical seals, particularly in high-risk industries like chemical, petroleum, and nuclear sectors. This work proposes augmenting the durability and sustainability of silicon carbide (SiC) ceramic seals with the application of a nanodiamond composite (NDC) film through coaxial arc plasma deposition (CAPD) in a vacuum atmosphere. The NDC coating, with a smooth surface roughness of Ra = 60 nm as substrate, demonstrated a thickness of 1.1 μm at a deposition rate of 2.6 μm/hr. NDC film has demonstrated exceptional mechanical and tribological characteristics, such as a hardness of 48.5 GPa, Young’s modulus of 496.7 GPa, plasticity index (H/E) of 0.098, and fracture toughness of H3/E2 = 0.46 GPa, respectively. These NDC films showcased commendable adhesion strength (> 60 N), negligible wear, and low friction (≤ 0.18) during dry sliding against a SiC counter material. Raman analysis has confirmed the nanocomposite structure of NDC film, emphasizing the role of highly energetic carbon ions in enhancing film adhesion by forming SiC intermetallic compounds at the interface through the diffusion of silicon atoms from the substrate into the films. The abundance of grain boundaries and rehybridization of carbon sp3 to sp2 bonding is perceived to improve tribological performance. CAPD excels in synthesizing long-life eco-friendly NDC coatings for durable and sustainable mechanical seals, featuring smooth surfaces, superior adhesion, outstanding hardness, and wear resistance, making them high potential candidates for various tribological applications.


EGIZA, M., DIAB, M.R., ZIA, A.W., MURASAWA, K., FAISAL, N. and YOSHITAKE, T. 2024. Wear-resistant and adherent nanodiamond composite thin film for durable and sustainable silicon carbide mechanical seals. Wear [online], 550-551, article number 205394. Available from:

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date May 1, 2024
Online Publication Date May 15, 2024
Publication Date Jul 15, 2024
Deposit Date May 16, 2024
Publicly Available Date May 16, 2024
Journal Wear
Print ISSN 0043-1648
Electronic ISSN 1873-2577
Publisher Elsevier
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 550-551
Article Number 205394
Keywords Dry friction; Wear-resistance; Mechanical seals; Nanocomposite; Diamond-like carbon; Arc plasma
Public URL
Additional Information This article has been published with separate supporting information. This supporting information has been incorporated into a single file on this repository and can be found at the end of the file associated with this output.


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