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Electrochemical sensors and biosensors for identification of viruses: a critical review.

Hosnedlova, Bozena; Werle, Julia; Cepova, Jana; Narayanan, Vedha Hari B.; Vyslouzilova, Lenka; Fernandez, Carlos; Parikesit, Arli Aditya; Kepinska, Marta; Klapkova, Eva; Kotaska, Karel; Stepankova, Olga; Bjorklund, Geir; Prusa, Richard; Kizek, Rene


Bozena Hosnedlova

Julia Werle

Jana Cepova

Vedha Hari B. Narayanan

Lenka Vyslouzilova

Arli Aditya Parikesit

Marta Kepinska

Eva Klapkova

Karel Kotaska

Olga Stepankova

Geir Bjorklund

Richard Prusa

Rene Kizek


Due to their life cycle, viruses can disrupt the metabolism of their hosts, causing diseases. If we want to disrupt their life cycle, it is necessary to identify their presence. For this purpose, it is possible to use several molecular-biological and bioanalytical methods. The reference selection was performed based on electronic databases (2020–2023). This review focused on electrochemical methods with high sensitivity and selectivity (53% voltammetry/amperometry, 33% impedance, and 12% other methods) which showed their great potential for detecting various viruses. Moreover, the aforementioned electrochemical methods have considerable potential to be applicable for care-point use as they are portable due to their miniaturizability and fast speed analysis (minutes to hours), and are relatively easy to interpret. A total of 2011 articles were found, of which 86 original papers were subsequently evaluated (the majority of which are focused on human pathogens, whereas articles dealing with plant pathogens are in the minority). Thirty-two species of viruses were included in the evaluation. It was found that most of the examined research studies (77%) used nanotechnological modifications. Other ones performed immunological (52%) or genetic analyses (43%) for virus detection. 5% of the reports used peptides to increase the method’s sensitivity. When evaluable, 65% of the research studies had LOD values in the order of ng or nM. The vast majority (79%) of the studies represent proof of concept and possibilities with low application potential and a high need of further research experimental work.


HOSNEDLOVA, B., WERLE, J., CEPOVA, J., NARAYANAN, V.H.B., VYSLOUZILOVA, L., FERNANDEZ, C., PARIKESIT, A.A., KEPINSKA, M., KLAPKOVA, E., KOTASKA, K., STEPANKOVA, O., BJORKLUND, G., PRUSA, R. and KIZEK, R. 2024. Electrochemical sensors and biosensors for identification of viruses: a critical review. Critical reviews in analytical chemistry [online], Online First. Available from:

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date May 16, 2024
Online Publication Date May 16, 2024
Deposit Date May 23, 2024
Publicly Available Date May 17, 2025
Journal Critical reviews in analytical chemistry
Print ISSN 1040-8347
Electronic ISSN 1547-6510
Publisher Taylor and Francis
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Keywords Emergency sensors and biosensors; Viruses; Ebola; SARS; COVID-19; Influenza; African swine fever; Nanomaterials; Bioanalytical approaches
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