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Development of a highly sensitive electrochemical sensing platform for the trace level detection of lead ions.

Shah, Afzal; Zahid, Anum; Khan, Amjad; Iftikhar, Faiza Jan; Nisar, Jan; Fernandez, Carlos; Akhter, Mohammad Salim; Almutawah, Abdulla Ali; Kraatz, Heinz-Bernhard


Afzal Shah

Anum Zahid

Amjad Khan

Faiza Jan Iftikhar

Jan Nisar

Mohammad Salim Akhter

Abdulla Ali Almutawah

Heinz-Bernhard Kraatz


Herein we report for the first time a highly sensitive electrochemical platform for the trace level detection of Pb (ӏӏ) using glassy carbon electrode modifiedwith 1-dodecanoyl-3-phenylthiourea (DPT). The performance of the designed sensor was tested by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, chronocoulometry, cyclic voltammetry and Square Wave Anodic Stripping Voltammetry (SWASV). The DPT was found to play an efficient role in enhancing the sensing response of the electrode for the detection of lead ions in aqueous samples. A number of experimental conditions such as deposition potential, accumulation time, surfactant concentration, pH, number of scans and supporting electrolytes were examined to optimize conditions for getting intense signal of the target analyte. Linear calibration curve was obtained using SWAS voltammetric data obtained under optimized conditions. The limit of detection with a value of 0.695 μg/L suggests that the designed sensor can sense lead ions even below the permissible concentration level (10 μg/L) recommended by the World Health Organization and Environmental Protection Agency of USA. The designed sensor demonstrated sensitivity, selectivity and stability for the targeted analyte. Percentage recoveries from real water samples with standard deviations of less than 2% suggested precision of the proposed method. Moreover, computational findings supported the experimental outcomes.


SHAH, A., ZAHID, A., KHAN, A., IFTIKHAR, F.J., NISAR, J., FERNANDEZ, C., AKHTER, M.S., ALMUTAWAH, A.A. and KRAATZ, H.-B. 2019. Development of a highly sensitive electrochemical sensing platform for the trace level detection of lead ions. Journal of the Electrochemical Society [online], 166(9), pages B3136-B3142. Available from:

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Apr 1, 2019
Online Publication Date Apr 22, 2019
Publication Date Sep 30, 2019
Deposit Date May 3, 2019
Publicly Available Date May 6, 2019
Journal Journal of The Electrochemical Society
Print ISSN 0013-4651
Electronic ISSN 1945-7111
Publisher Electrochemical Society
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 166
Issue 9
Pages B3136-B3142
Keywords Electroanalytical electrochemisty; Sensors; Electrochemical sensor; Pb (II) detection; Sensitivity
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