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Positioning and spinal bracing for pain relief in metastatic spinal cord compression in adults.

Lee, Siew Hwa; Grant, Robin; Kennedy, Catriona; Kilbride, Lynn


Robin Grant

Lynn Kilbride


Background: This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in Issue 3 (Lee 2012) on patient positioning (mobilisation) and bracing for pain relief and spinal stability in adults with metastatic spinal cord compression. Many patients with metastatic spinal cord compression (MSCC) have spinal instability, but their clinician has determined that due to their advanced disease they are unsuitable for surgical internal fixation. Mobilising may be hazardous in the presence of spinal instability as further vertebral collapse can occur. Current guidance on positioning (whether a patient should be managed with bed rest or allowed to mobilise) and whether spinal bracing is helpful, is contradictory. Objectives: To investigate the correct positioning and examine the effects of spinal bracing to relieve pain or to prevent further vertebral collapse in patients with MSCC. Search methods: For this update, we searched for relevant studies from February 2012 to 31 March 2015. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE and MEDLINE In Process, EMBASE, AMED, CINAHL, TRIP, SIGN, NICE, UK Clinical Research Network, National Guideline Clearinghouse and PEDro database. We also searched the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT),, UK Clinical Trials Gateway (UKCTG), WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) and Australia New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR). For the original version, we searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, CANCERLIT, NICE, SIGN, AMED, TRIP, National Guideline Clearinghouse, and PEDro database, in February 2012. Selection criteria: We selected randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of adults with MSCC of interventions on positioning (mobilisation) and bracing. Data collection and analysis: Two review authors independently assessed each possible study for inclusion and quality. Main results: For the original version of the review, we screened 1611 potentially relevant studies. No studies met the inclusion criteria. Many papers identified the importance of mobilisation, but no RCTs of bed rest versus mobilisation have been undertaken. We identified no RCTs of bracing in MSCC. For this update, we identified 347 potential titles. We screened 300 titles and abstracts after removal of duplicates. We did not identify any additional studies for inclusion. Authors' conclusions: Since publication of the original version of this review, no new studies were found and our conclusions remain unchanged. There is a lack of evidence‐based guidance around how to correctly position and when to mobilise patients with MSCC or if spinal bracing is an effective technique for reducing pain or improving quality of life. RCTs are required in this important area.


LEE, S.H., GRANT, R., KENNEDY, C. and KILBRIDE, L. 2015. Positioning and spinal bracing for pain relief in metastatic spinal cord compression in adults. Cochrane database of systematic reviews [online], Issue 9, article number CD007609. Available from:

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Sep 24, 2015
Online Publication Date Sep 24, 2015
Publication Date Sep 24, 2015
Deposit Date Sep 13, 2016
Publicly Available Date Sep 25, 2016
Journal Cochrane database of systematic reviews
Print ISSN 1361-6137
Electronic ISSN 1469-493X
Publisher Cochrane Collaboration
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Issue 9
Article Number CD007609
Keywords Joint instability; Pain management; Patient positioning; Spinal cord compression; Spinal neoplasms; Metastatic cord compression
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