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Estimating embodied carbon: a dual currency approach.

Victoria, M.F.; Perera, S.; Zhou, L.; Davies, A.


S. Perera

L. Zhou

A. Davies


Stephen P. Wilkinson

Jun Xia

Bing Chen


Embodied carbon (EC) estimating is a growing area of research. EC estimating is evolving since the recent past, thus, undergoing several criticisms. On the other hand, there is a lack of interest among industry practitioners on EC estimating and reporting. However, EC estimating is crucial in a world of swiftly changing climate and visible adverse consequences. Therefore, this paper covers important aspects of EC estimating and explains various sources and methods of estimating, ranging from complex to simple methods of estimating. EC estimating is further explained by case studies of seven office buildings. Further, problems like lack of a standard method of measurement, lack of a robust database/benchmark for EC, lack of EC data for modern products and lack of EC data for sophisticated services are discussed. More importantly, the paper introduces dual currency appraisal of construction projects in which EC estimating plays a crucial role.


VICTORIA, M.F., PERERA, S., ZHOU, L. and DAVIES, A. 2015. Estimating embodied carbon: a dual currency approach. In Wilkinson, S.P., Xia, J. and Chen, B. (eds.) Proceedings of the 1st International conference on sustainable buildings and structures, 29 October - 1 November 2015, Suzhou, China. Boca Raton: CRC Press [online], pages 223-231. Available from:

Conference Name 1st International conference on sustainable buildings and structures
Conference Location Suzhou, China
Start Date Oct 29, 2015
End Date Nov 1, 2015
Acceptance Date Oct 7, 2015
Online Publication Date Oct 7, 2015
Publication Date Nov 1, 2015
Deposit Date Jan 15, 2018
Publicly Available Date Jan 15, 2018
Publisher CRC Press
Pages 223-231
ISBN 9781138028982
Keywords Buildings; Zero carbon building; Embodied carbon
Public URL
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