Weber's concept of social closure can help to illuminate the social processes that result in the development of militant Muslim groups. Adapting and applying the concept helps to establish the interrelationships between secular processes and Islamification that are designed by the militants to exclude others and usurp governments. These processes include the implementation of secularisation, conversely concessions to religion and the reinvigoration of Islamic concepts that are used as codes of closure to unite followers and ostracize other Muslims and religious denominations.
VERTIGANS, S. 2007. Militant Islam and Weber's social closure: interrelated secular and religious codes of exclusion. Contemporary Islam [online], 1(3), pages 303-321. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11562-007-0027-6