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A novel mixed matrix membrane of phenolphthalein hydrazide and polysulfone for the detection of copper ions in environmental water samples.

Sreeramareddygari, Muralikrishna; Kempahanumakkagari, Sureshkumar; Mahesh, Padaki; Thippeswamy, Ramakrishnappa; Devaramani, Samrat; Mardi, Radhakrishna Reddy; Carlos, Fernandez; Govindappa, Banuprakash


Muralikrishna Sreeramareddygari

Sureshkumar Kempahanumakkagari

Padaki Mahesh

Ramakrishnappa Thippeswamy

Samrat Devaramani

Radhakrishna Reddy Mardi

Banuprakash Govindappa


The novel membrane test strip of phenolphthalein hydrazide (PH)-polysulfone has been designed and demonstrated for Cu2+ ions detection. Before finding performance of membrane the studies with PH alone has been performed. Aqueous solutions of PH are colorless, but upon interaction with Cu2+ ions become pink (when 8.2 ≤ pH ≥ 12). The colorimetric change is initiated by the coordination of Cu2+ with PH as a polydentate ligand, opening the spirolactam ring that subsequently hydrolyses releasing phenolphthalein (P). Further membrane was preloaded with PH that could be used as a simple, low cost, and portable sensor for Cu2+ ions in environmental water samples. Given the detection limits of this sensor, a maximum response would warn the tester that Cu2+ concentrations were above safe drinking regulation values. Approximate concentrations can be determined via a color comparison chart. Different metal ions were tested in order to determine the chemodosimeters specificity, of the 12 tested ions only Hg2+ induced a similar molecular transformation (i.e., PH to P). The chemodosimeter allows the quantification of Cu2+ ions in the linear dynamic range of 0–22 μM. The Sandell sensitivity, limit of detection, limit of quantification, and relative standard deviation were found to be 0.276 μg/mL/cm2, 0.279 μM, 1.674 μM, and 0.682% respectively.


SREERAMAREDDYGARI, M., KEMPAHANUMAKKAGARI, S., MAHESH, P., THIPPESWAMY, R., DEVARAMANI, S., MARDI, R.R., CARLOS, F. and GOVINDAPPA, B. 2019. A novel mixed matrix membrane of phenolphthalein hydrazide and polysulfone for the detection of copper ions in environmental water samples. Environmental progress and sustainable energy [online], 38(5), article number 13167. Available from:

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Jan 2, 2019
Online Publication Date Jan 21, 2019
Publication Date Oct 31, 2019
Deposit Date Feb 25, 2019
Publicly Available Date Jan 22, 2020
Journal Environmental progess and sustainable energy
Print ISSN 1944-7442
Electronic ISSN 1944-7450
Publisher Wiley Open Access
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 38
Issue 5
Article Number 13167
Keywords Chemodosimeter; Phenolphthalein; Hydrazide; Polysulfone membrane; Naked eye sensor; Phenolphthalein
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