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Foundational stigma: place‐based stigma in the age before advanced marginality.

Butler?Warke, Alice



This paper joins the debate on the formation of territorial stigma by uncovering the existence of a form of “foundational stigma” that preceded place-based stigma of the era of advanced marginality. I show that not only were the traces of stigma present prior to the era of advanced marginality but that these early traces facilitate later forms of stigma by providing the necessary foundations upon which adhesive and detrimental stigma was operationalized. Following a critical discourse analysis approach, this paper examines coverage in the British press of Toxteth, Liverpool between 1900 and 1981 as a paradigmatic case study to show that this primitive stigma existed in three key ways: relating to inter-community strife, to crime, and to substandard housing conditions. These traces of stigma laid the foundations for later forms of stigma based on the presence of the poor, violent, deviant other that would be operationalized by dominant voices during the era of advanced marginality.


BUTLER-WARKE, A. 2020. Foundational stigma: place-based stigma in the age before advanced marginality. British journal of sociology [online], 71(1), pages 140-152. Available from:

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Nov 14, 2019
Online Publication Date Dec 15, 2019
Publication Date Jan 31, 2020
Deposit Date Jan 13, 2020
Publicly Available Date Dec 16, 2021
Journal British Journal of Sociology
Print ISSN 0007-1315
Electronic ISSN 1468-4446
Publisher Wiley
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 71
Issue 1
Pages 140-152
Keywords Liverpool; Marginality; Print media; Stigma; Territorial stigma; Toxteth
Public URL


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