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Hydrogen energy storage

Ali, Dallia Mahmoud Morsi



M. Taha Demirkan

Adel Attia


The dominating trend of variable renewable energy sources (RES) continues to underpin the early retirement of baseload power generating sources such as coal, nuclear, and natural gas steam generators; however, the need to maintain system reliability remains the challenge. Implementing energy storage with conventional power plants provides a method for load leveling, peak shaving, and time shifting allowing power quality improvement and reduction in grid energy management issues, implementing energy storage with RES smooth their intermittency, by storing the surplus in their generation for later use during their shortfall, thus enabling their high penetration into the electricity grid. Energy storage technologies (EST) can be classified according to many criteria like their application (permanent or portable), capacity, storage duration (short or long), and size (weight and volume). EST suited for short duration storage and low-to-medium power outputs are seen performing better in improving power quality, while those providing medium-to-high power outputs with long durations are seen better suited for energy management of electrical networks. With the growing deployment of renewable energy systems, EST must be utilized to allow the grid to absorb the increased integration of RES generation. The recent advances in hydrogen energy storage technologies (HEST) have unlocked their potential for use with constrained renewable generation. HEST combines hydrogen production, storage, and end use technologies with the renewable generation either in a directly connected configuration or in an indirectly connected configuration via the existing power network. This chapter introduces the hydrogen energy storage technology and its implementation in conjunction with renewable energy sources. The efficiency of renewable hydrogen energy storage systems (RHESS) will be explored with a techno-economic assessment. A levelized cost (LC) model that identifies the financial competitiveness of HEST in different application scenarios is given, where five scenarios are investigated to demonstrate the most financially competitive configuration. To address the absence of a commercial software tool that can quickly size an energy system incorporating HEST while using limited data, a deterministic modeling approach that enables a quick initial sizing of hybrid renewable hydrogen energy systems (HRHES) is given in this chapter. This modeling approach can achieve the initial sizing of a HRHES using only two input data, namely the available renewable energy resource and the load profile. A modeling of the effect of the electrolyzer thermal transients at start-up, when operated in conjunction with an intermittent renewable generation, on the quantity of hydrogen produced is also given in this chapter.


ALI, D.M.M. 2019. Hydrogen energy storage. In Demirkan, M.T. and Attia, A. (eds.) Energy storage devices. London: IntechOpen [online], chapter 8. Available from:

Acceptance Date Jul 29, 2019
Online Publication Date Sep 27, 2019
Publication Date Dec 18, 2019
Deposit Date Jan 8, 2020
Publicly Available Date Jan 22, 2020
Publisher InTechOpen
Book Title Energy storage devices
Chapter Number 8
ISBN 9781789856941 ; 9781789856934
Keywords Energy storage technology; Hydrogen energy storage; Renewable energy; Hybrid energy systems
Public URL


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