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Framework for macro building information modelling (BIM) adoption in Nigeria.

Hamma-Adama, Mansur


Mansur Hamma-Adama



The Construction Industry is a vital component of a nations' Gross Domestic Product (GDP), employing both skilled and unskilled personnel. The construction industry's productivity depends on many factors, such as stakeholder relationships, construction processes, technology, workflows, project finance, workers' wellbeing, policy, and so on. The Nigerian construction industry is disjointed; professional stakeholders operate in silos, with a full monopoly of information. As a result, the sector suffers from inefficiencies and poor performance, uncompleted projects and building collapse. These are attributed to a rigid professional structure, poor information management and poor building production management. This research sets an agenda for investigation and development in the area of Building Information Modelling (BIM). The research work intends to explore and assess the current state of BIM, the status of BIM adoption and implementation, as well as its potential opportunities. The research also aims to develop a framework for the effective adoption of BIM in the Nigerian construction industry. Three different sources of data are used: comparative case studies (literature-based), a survey questionnaire (primary source, quantitative-based) and a semi-structured interview (primary source, qualitative-based). A purposeful sampling technique was used in drawing the research participants. The respondents came from within the construction professions (i.e. architects, builders, engineers, project managers, quantity surveyors, and town planners). The comparative case studies set example paces for effective BIM adoption and implementation, and served as precedents for the purpose of looking specifically at Nigeria. The quantitative data was used on the macro BIM adoption models and established Nigerian BIM maturity. These models revealed grey areas where attention is needed and they were also used to provide the basis for the development of the BIM adoption framework. The qualitative data was analysed using content analysis (in a sequential mixed method strategy) and used as input to the development of the context-based BIM adoption framework. The framework has been developed using a template for producing a national BIM roadmap; a six-year timeline with sequential action plans and milestones were generated. The framework suggests a push-pull process involving both government and industry; led by the government with support from the industry at the implementation stage. A partial mandate is recommended with incentives for adopters. The study revealed BIM potential in improving design and construction processes as well as information management. The study recommends practical and full implementation of the framework. However, the sequence may change over time as a result of potential changes accrued in the areas of diffusion dynamics and policy actions/requirements. Thus, a periodic macro BIM adoption study is recommended ahead of the implementation of the framework. This research is unique within its context and essential to promote a new process of working in the Nigerian construction industry. It will also assist government and industry stakeholders to initiate the paradigm shift required for a better construction industry, to avoid falling behind in a rapidly digitised world and economy.


HAMMA-ADAMA, M. 2020. Framework for macro building information modelling (BIM) adoption in Nigeria. Robert Gordon University, PhD thesis. Hosted on OpenAIR [online]. Available from:

Thesis Type Thesis
Deposit Date Mar 8, 2021
Publicly Available Date Mar 8, 2021
Keywords Building information modelling (BIM); BIM adoption; BIM implementation; Change - barriers, benefits and drivers; Construction industry; Nigeria
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