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State of science: models and methods for understanding and enhancing teams and teamwork in complex sociotechnical systems.

Roberts, Aaron P.J.; Webster, Leonie V.; Salmon, Paul M.; Flin, Rhona; Salas, Eduardo; Cooke, Nancy J.; Read, Gemma J.M.; Stanton, Neville A.


Aaron P.J. Roberts

Leonie V. Webster

Paul M. Salmon

Eduardo Salas

Nancy J. Cooke

Gemma J.M. Read

Neville A. Stanton


This state of the science review brings together the disparate literature of effective strategies for enhancing and accelerating team performance. The review evaluates and synthesises models and proposes recommended avenues for future research. The two major models of the Input-Mediator-Output-Input (IMOI) framework and the Big Five dimensions of teamwork were reviewed and both will need significant development for application to future teams comprising non-human agents. Research suggests that a multi-method approach is appropriate for team measurements, such as the integration of methods from self-report, observer ratings, event-based measurement and automated recordings. Simulations are recommended as the most effective team-based training interventions. The impact of new technology and autonomous agents is discussed with respect to the changing nature of teamwork. In particular, whether existing teamwork models and measures are suitable to support the design, operation and evaluation of human-nonhuman teams of the future. Practitioner summary: This review recommends a multi-method approach to the measurement and evaluation of teamwork. Team models will need to be adapted to describe interaction with non-human agents, which is what the future is most likely to hold. The most effective team training interventions use simulation-based approaches.


ROBERTS, A.P.J., WEBSTER, L.V., SALMON, P.M., FLIN, R., SALAS, E., COOKE, N.J., READ, G.J.M. and STANTON, N.A. 2022. State of science: models and methods for understanding and enhancing teams and teamwork in complex sociotechnical systems. Ergonomics [online], 65(2), pages 161-187. Available from:

Journal Article Type Review
Acceptance Date Oct 21, 2021
Online Publication Date Dec 23, 2021
Publication Date Feb 28, 2022
Deposit Date Feb 17, 2022
Publicly Available Date Dec 24, 2022
Journal Ergonomics
Print ISSN 0014-0139
Electronic ISSN 1366-5847
Publisher Taylor & Francis
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Keywords Team; Teamwork; Measurement; Team training; Interventions
Public URL


ROBERTS 2022 State of science (AAM) (681 Kb)

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Copyright Statement
This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis in Ergonomics on 23.12.2021, available online:

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