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A PESTEL and SWOT impact analysis on renewable energy development in Togo.

Kansongue, Nanimpo; Njuguna, James; Vertigans, Stephen



Like most developing countries, Togo continues to rely on the use of traditional forms of biomass energy which causes tremendous socio-economic, environmental and health hazards. In addition, the imbalanced distribution and use of electricity, petroleum and liquid gas reflect the disproportion in income and quality of life. This paper plans to highlight the development renewable energy has had in the past decade and the challenges facing the Togolese government, using a framework approach that will best address. Framework approach such as PESTEL and SWOT analysis are utilised to access both the internal and external factors in relation to renewable energy development and its impact on Togo. This will provide a better understanding of the sustainability issues facing Togo and provide solutions on the best methods that will lead to greater impact and development. The result shows that renewable energy development in Togo has improved in the past decade and had some impact on the socio-economic development. However better development will be achieved if approaches are introduced to provide a long-term solution to the high capital costs of the technologies, institutional sustainability is incorporated, the number of trained personnel/technical expertise is increased and the Government engagement with funding bodies to secure funds that will favour off-grid and poorest communities is increased. There is also a need to include local participation in the design and operation of projects, introduce cross-subsidization tariff scheme that cover the operation and maintenance cost of off-grid solar PV users that will favour poor households. Finally, liberalization of the energy sector is needed as well as government's support to help private investment in rural electrification via Build-Own-Operate arrangements.


KANSONGUE, N., NJUGUNA, J. and VERTIGANS, S. 2023. A PESTEL and SWOT impact analysis on renewable energy development in Togo. Frontiers in sustainability [online], 3, article 990173. Available from:

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Jan 13, 2023
Online Publication Date Feb 7, 2023
Publication Date Dec 31, 2023
Deposit Date Jan 13, 2023
Publicly Available Date Jan 13, 2023
Journal Frontiers in sustainability
Electronic ISSN 2673-4524
Publisher Frontiers Media
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 3
Article Number 990173
Keywords Sustainable development; Renewable energy; Impact; Solar power; Hydropower; PESTEL analysis; SWOT analysis; Togo
Public URL


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