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The development of the helicopter non-technical skills (HeliNOTS) behavioural marker systems.

Hamlet, Oliver E.D.; Irwin, Amy; Flin, Rhona; Sedlar, Nejc


Oliver E.D. Hamlet

Amy Irwin

Nejc Sedlar


Behavioural marker systems (observational frameworks geared towards the assessment of non-technical skills by way of behavioural markers) exist across a variety of high-risk occupations, however no identifiable system currently exists developed from rotary operative data. In this study, discussion groups (n=9) were undertaken with subject matter experts (n=20) – including pilots and technical crew operating across search and rescue and offshore transport environments – with the objective of identifying role-specific behavioural markers. Systems were reviewed on an iterative basis by the academic team and received final reviews by additional subject matter experts (n=6). Two behavioural marker systems were constructed: HeliNOTS (O) for offshore transport pilots and HeliNOTS (SAR) for search and rescue crews; each with domain-specific behavioural markers. Both represent a significant step towards a nuanced approach to training and assessment of helicopter flight crews' non-technical skills and are the first publicly available systems tailored to these distinct mission types.


HAMLET, O.E.D., IRWIN, A., FLIN, R. and SEDLAR, N. [2023]. The development of the helicopter non-technical skills (HeliNOTS) behavioural marker systems. Ergonomics [online], Latest Articles. Available from:

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Mar 18, 2023
Online Publication Date Apr 3, 2023
Deposit Date Mar 24, 2023
Publicly Available Date Mar 24, 2023
Journal Ergonomics
Print ISSN 0014-0139
Electronic ISSN 1366-5847
Publisher Taylor & Francis
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Keywords Crew resource management; Pilot, crew behaviour; Pilot decision making; Situation awareness; Training evaluation
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