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Hyperspectral imaging based corrosion detection in nuclear packages.

Zabalza, Jaime; Murray, Paul; Bennett, Stuart; Campbell, Andrew J.; Marshall, Stephen; Ren, Jinchang; Yan, Yijun; Bernard, Robert; Hepworth, Steve; Malone, Simon; Cockbain, Neil; Offin, Douglas; Holliday, Craig


Jaime Zabalza

Paul Murray

Stuart Bennett

Andrew J. Campbell

Stephen Marshall

Yijun Yan

Robert Bernard

Steve Hepworth

Simon Malone

Neil Cockbain

Douglas Offin

Craig Holliday


In the Sellafield nuclear site, intermediate level waste and special nuclear material is stored above ground in stainless steel packages or containers, with thousands expected to be stored for several decades before permanent disposal in a geological disposal facility. During this intermediate storage, the packages are susceptible to corrosion, which can potentially undermine their structural integrity. Therefore, long term monitoring is required. In this work, hyperspectral imaging (HSI) was evaluated as a non-destructive tool for detecting corrosion on stainless steel surfaces. Real samples from Sellafield, including stainless steel 1.4404 (known as 316L) and 2205 plates from the Sellafield atmospheric testing corrosion site, were imaged in the experiments, measuring the spectral responses for corrosion in the visible near-infrared (VNIR, 400-1000 nm) and short-wave-infrared (SWIR, 900-2500 nm) regions. Based on the spectral responses observed, a new concept denoted as Corrosion Index (Ci) was introduced and evaluated to estimate corrosion maps. With the CI, every pixel in the hyperspectral image is given a value between zero and one, aimed at representing corrosion intensity for a given location of the sample. Results suggest that HSI, combined with our proposed CI analysis techniques, could be used for effective automated detection of corrosion in nuclear packages.


ZABALZA, J., MURRAY, P., BENNETT, S., CAMPBELL, A.J., MARSHALL, S., REN, J., YAN, Y., BERNARD, R., HEPWORTH, S., MALONE, S., COCKBAIN, N., OFFIN, D. and HOLLIDAY, C. 2023. Hyperspectral imaging based corrosion detection in nuclear packages. IEEE sensors journal [online], 23(21), pages 25607-25617. Available from:

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Sep 18, 2023
Online Publication Date Sep 18, 2023
Publication Date Nov 1, 2023
Deposit Date Oct 12, 2023
Publicly Available Date Oct 12, 2023
Journal IEEE Sensors Journal
Print ISSN 1530-437X
Electronic ISSN 1558-1748
Publisher Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 23
Issue 21
Pages 25607-25617
Keywords Corrosion; Hyperspectral imaging; Nuclear packages; Stainless steel; Imaging; Sensors; Steel; Testing; Image color analysis
Public URL


ZABALZA 2023 Hyperspectral imaging based (AAM) (1.3 Mb)

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