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Extending the capability of forensic electrochemistry to the novel psychoactive substance benzylpiperazine.

Waddell, S.A.; Fernandez, C.; Inverarity, C.C.; Prabhu, R.

Authors

S.A. Waddell

C.C. Inverarity



Abstract

Benzylpiperazine (BZP) is a novel psychoactive substance that is commonly abused in tablet form as an 'ecstasy-type' drug. Electroanalysis offers genuine potential for field testing of bulk drug samples. This research is the first to investigate the viability of voltammetric analysis of BZP. Initial cyclic voltammetry in 0.1 M KCl showed an oxidative peak at a glassy carbon electrode for BZP at approximately 0.8 V (scan rate 205 mV s− 1). Next an optimised electrode/electrolyte combination (viz. 80:20 W:W glassy carbon beads:nujol and pH 9.5, 40 mM, Britton-Robinson buffer) was developed using K3Fe(CN)6 to test the electrode material. The oxidation of BZP involves two electrons and two protons and a mechanism has been proposed. An anodic stripping square wave voltammetric method was optimised by factorial design with the conditions of deposition: − 0.8 V for 135 s, and stripping: step height 10 mV, amplitude 50 mV and frequency 13 Hz. A limit of detection of 6 μM was achieved. The resolution against 3,4-methylenedioxymethylamphetamine (MDMA) was also verified.

Citation

WADDELL, S.A., FERNANDEZ, C., INVERARITY, C.C. and PRABHU, R. 2017. Extending the capability of forensic electrochemistry to the novel psychoactive substance benzylpiperazine. Sensing and bio-sensing research [online], 13, pages 28-39. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbsr.2016.12.001

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Dec 16, 2016
Online Publication Date Dec 21, 2016
Publication Date Apr 30, 2017
Deposit Date Feb 16, 2017
Publicly Available Date Feb 16, 2017
Journal Sensing and bio-sensing research
Print ISSN 2214-1804
Electronic ISSN 2214-4804
Publisher Elsevier
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 13
Pages 28-39
DOI https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbsr.2016.12.001
Keywords Voltammetry; Forensic; Controlled drugs; Benzylpiperazine; Ecstasy
Public URL http://hdl.handle.net/10059/2172

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