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Performance evaluation of unconcentrated photovoltaic-thermoelectric generator hybrid system under tropical climate.

Shatar, Nursyahirah Mohd; Rahman, Mohd Azizi Abdul; Muhtazaruddin, Mohd Nabil; Salim, Sheikh Ahmad Zaki Shaikh; Singh, Baljit; Muhammad-Sukki, Firdaus; Bani, Nurul Aini; Saudi, Ahmad Shakir Mohd; Ardila-Rey, Jorge Alfredo


Nursyahirah Mohd Shatar

Mohd Azizi Abdul Rahman

Mohd Nabil Muhtazaruddin

Sheikh Ahmad Zaki Shaikh Salim

Baljit Singh

Firdaus Muhammad-Sukki

Nurul Aini Bani

Ahmad Shakir Mohd Saudi

Jorge Alfredo Ardila-Rey


Indoor farming is among the approaches which can be adapted to improve agricultural sustainability and ensure the food security of countries. However, adopting indoor farming requires a high amount of energy to sustain the system. Incorporating a renewable energy system for supplying power to agricultural activities will allow the system to be more sustainable in the long run. An unconcentrated photovoltaic-thermoelectric generator (PV-TEG) hybrid system is designed based on the load requirement of an indoor farm. The hybrid system performance under Malaysia’s weather conditions was investigated and analyzed over three months. The designed system has shown its ability to provide sufficient power to the load, as well as supporting an additional load. Besides that, the TEGs power output was found to be dependent on the temperature as well as the types of connections used, where a higher temperature difference and series connection exhibited a better power output. Overall, the combination of the system showed that the addition of a TEG affects the efficiency and power output as compared to a standalone PV. Therefore, this implies that the hybrid system is able to exhibit a more positive outcome in certain weather conditions than a PV standalone system.


SHATAR, N.M., RAHMAN, M.A.A., MUHTAZARUDDIN, M.N., SALIM, S.A.Z.S., SINGH, B., MUHAMMAD-SUKKI, F., BANI, N.A., SAUDI, A.S.M. and ARDILA-REY, J.A. 2019. Performance evaluation of unconcentrated photovoltaic-thermoelectric generator hybrid system under tropical climate. Sustainability [online], 11(22), article ID 6192. Available from:

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Nov 4, 2019
Online Publication Date Nov 6, 2019
Publication Date Nov 30, 2019
Deposit Date Nov 7, 2019
Publicly Available Date Nov 7, 2019
Journal Sustainability
Electronic ISSN 2071-1050
Publisher MDPI
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 11
Issue 22
Article Number 6192
Keywords Photovoltaic; Thermoelectric generator; PV-TEG; Sustainable agriculture; Indoor farming
Public URL
Publisher URL


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