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Parametric analysis using CFD to study the impact of geometric and numerical modeling on the performance of a small scale horizontal axis wind turbine.

Siddiqui, Muhammad Salman; Khalid, Muhammad Hamza; Badar, Abdul Waheed; Saeed, Muhammed; Asim, Taimoor


Muhammad Salman Siddiqui

Muhammad Hamza Khalid

Abdul Waheed Badar

Muhammed Saeed


The reliance on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations has drastically increased over time to evaluate the aerodynamic performance of small-scale wind turbines. With the rapid variability in customer demand, industrial requirements, economic constraints, and time limitations associated with the design and development of small-scale wind turbines, the trade-off between computational resources and the simulation’s numerical accuracy may vary significantly. In the context of wind turbine design and analysis, high fidelity simulation under full geometric and numerical complexity is more accurate but pose significant demands from a computational standpoint. There is a need to understand and quantify performance deterioration of high fidelity simulations under reduced geometric or numerical approximation on a single small scale turbine model. In the present work, the flow past a small-scale Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine (HAWT) was simulated under various geometric and numerical configurations. The geometric complexity was varied based on stationary and rotating turbine conditions. In the stationary case, simple 2D airfoil, 2.5D blade, 3D blade sections are evaluated, while rotational effects are introduced for the configuration 3D blade, rotor only, and the full-scale wind turbine with and without the inclusion of a nacelle and tower. In terms of numerical complexity, the Single Reference Frame (SRF), Multiple Reference Frames (MRF), and the Sliding Meshing Interface (SMI) is analyzed over Tip Speed Ratios (TSR) of 3, 6, 10. The quantification of aerodynamic coefficients of the blade (Cl, Cd ) and turbine (Cp, Ct ) was conducted along with the discussion on wake patterns in comparison with experimental data.


SIDDIQUI, M.S., KHALID, M.H., BADAR, A.W., SAEED, M. and ASIM, T. 2022. Parametric analysis using CFD to study the impact of geometric and numerical modeling on the performance of a small scale horizontal axis wind turbine. Energies [online], 15(2), article 505. Available from:

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Dec 14, 2021
Online Publication Date Jan 11, 2022
Publication Date Jan 31, 2022
Deposit Date Feb 1, 2022
Publicly Available Date Feb 1, 2022
Journal Energies
Electronic ISSN 1996-1073
Publisher MDPI
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 15
Issue 2
Article Number 505
Keywords Wind energy; Horizontal axis wind turbine; Computational fluid dynamics; High fidelity simulations; Sliding mesh interface; Multiple reference frame
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SIDDIQUI 2022 Parametric analysis using (VOR) (6.8 Mb)

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Copyright Statement
© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (

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